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Honeywell Admits Sending F-35, F-22 Part Drawings To China​

May 03, 2021
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Credit: Lockheed Martin

Honeywell has agreed to pay $13 million in fines and compliance costs after company officials sent multiple engineering and technical documents to China with details of multiple aircraft, including the Lockheed Martin F-35 and F-22, over a seven-year period, the U.S. State Department said May 3.

 

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GE Aviation finishes testing on first XA100 adaptive cycle engine​

By Garrett Reim13 May 2021
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An adaptive cycle engine like GE Aviation’s XA100 could extend the reach of the F-35 stealth fighter

GE Aviation has wrapped up testing on its first XA100 prototype, an adaptive cycle engine.

An adaptive cycle engine is a novel turbine that can change air flow through three different air streams, depending on an aircraft’s need for efficiency or extra power. The US Air Force (USAF) has been funding development of the engine type since 2007.

Testing on the XA100 started in December 2020. The prototype showed performance and mechanical behaviour that were consistent with pre-test predictions, GE said on 13 May. The engine met the USAF Adaptive Engine Transition Program (AETP) objectives, the company says.

“We were exceptionally pleased with how the engine performed throughout the test,” says David Tweedie, GE Edison Works’ general manager for advanced combat engines. “We’re looking forward to working with the air force and other stakeholders to identify the next steps toward bringing this revolutionary capability out of the test cell and into the hands of the warfighter.”

The USAF is interested in re-engining the Lockheed Martin F-35A stealth fighter with an adaptive engine to increase the aircraft’s 1,200nm (2,220km) range, which is viewed as too short for attacking targets within China. The fighter currently is powered by the Pratt & Whitney F135 turbine engine.

Adaptive engines work by changing the volume of air flow that bypasses the turbine core by opening a third stream when flying in cruise mode. This third flow – in addition to the core flow and bypass turbofan flow – increases the engine’s efficiency. Alternatively, in high-thrust mode the engine directs the majority of air through the engine’s core and bypass turbofan streams, delivering greater thrust for combat manoeuvring. The third flow also has a cooling effect, allowing the core to run hotter, which further increases fuel efficiency.

GE claims an adaptive cycle engine could deliver to an aircraft a 50% improvement in loiter time, 35% increase in range, 25% reduction in fuel consumption, 10% increase in thrust and 60% more heat absorption. It is thought that additional cooling capacity could be useful for managing heat coming off directed energy weapons, such as lasers.

The XA100 was developed using ceramic matrix composites, polymer matrix composites and additive manufacturing, says GE. The company says it was able to learn a lot from its initial test regime.

“This was the most heavily instrumented engine test in both GE and US Air Force history,” Tweedie says. “We were able to obtain an immense amount of high-quality test data proving out the engine’s capabilities and demonstrating a good return on the air force’s investment.”

Assembly of the second prototype XA100 engine is underway, says GE. Testing on that engine is planned to start later in 2021 and when finished would conclude the major deliverables of the AETP programme.
 

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F-35 ‘Green Glow’ Can Impact Night Ops, USAF Investigation Shows


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Tech. Sgt. Anthony Farnsworth, 419th Operations Support Squadron, demonstrates the F-35 Generation III Helmet-Mounted Display at Hill AFB, Utah, in July 2021.
Credit: U.S. Air Force


A lingering problem with the F-35’s high-tech helmet obscuring the pilot’s vision has prompted U.S. Air Force investigators to call for adjustments to the system, while the service is not following the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps’ effort to retrofit a fix for the “green glow” issue.

The problem forced an F-35A pilot to rapidly pull away from a wingman and refueling tanker during a night operation earlier this year because the green glow caused him to become disoriented and unable to see the nearby aircraft, according to a safety investigation report.

The Air Force incident is similar to situations that Navy and Marine Corps pilots found themselves in during dark night carrier landings, with the glow obscuring the ship and its flight deck. In response, the Navy initiated a capability requirement to address the problem, and the F-35 Joint Program Office (JPO) began a phased Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) capability development to replace the projection technology in the helmet, the JPO said in a statement.

The retrofit replaces the helmet’s liquid crystal display (LCD) with the OLED technology, which can provide a clearer image in low light. While these upgrades are underway, the Air Force and international F-35 operators have not determined a requirement for the new capability.

The January incident in Alaska detailed the possible threat of the green glow during night operations. At about 6:10 p.m. on Jan. 6, 2021, an F-35A pilot with the 356th Fighter Squadron at Eielson AFB, Alaska, was on an initial night checkout flight led by an instructor pilot in another F-35A.

The task for the night was basic surface attack with an introduction to night air-to-air refueling in the nearby Paxon military operating area.

The night was dark, with the Moon below the horizon, when the two-ship formation joined up with a KC-135R for the refueling training. The instructor pilot moved to take on fuel first, but he could only see the tanker’s beacon intermittently, and briefly stopped the rejoin because the tanker’s lights were too low. Once the KC-135 boom operator turned up the tanker’s light, the instructor pilot then moved to rejoin and took on 3,000 lb. of fuel.

Once disconnected, the instructor moved to observe his wingman from under the KC-135R’s right wing. The tanker started a 10-20 deg. left bank turn, and the second pilot struggled to maintain contact for about 5 min. The aircraft flew through light clouds, and the instructor pilot began to struggle to see his wingman.

Green glow from the helmet, combined with low tanker lighting and hazy clouds, obscured the view of the other F-35 attempting to refuel and the tanker itself. The illumination from the helmet display was so bright that the pilot needed to tilt his head and look below the display to try to see his environment.

After about 2-3 min., the pilot felt the “leans” of disorientation and more frequently checked the F-35’s Electronic Flight Instrument to try to gain situational awareness, according to the investigation. As the tanker rolled, the instructor pilot realized he was “Type-1 Spatially Disoriented,” meaning he was totally blind to what was going on around him. The pilot went to max afterburner, checked away to the right and climbed 10 deg. nose high, calling on the radio “Number 1 is Spatial D’d, climbing in max afterburner.”

The upgrade pilot then radioed “Knock it Off” to halt all training. The instructor climbed away, setting autopilot for flight level 300 and 300 knots indicated air speed. The pilot stayed on autopilot for several minutes, though he felt normal after about 30 sec. The night refueling was terminated and the F-35s safely returned to Eielson.

A brief Air Force safety investigation into the incident, released to Aerospace DAILY as part of a Freedom of Information Act request, said the incident was the result of Personal Equipment Interference and the use of “Poorly Designed or Unsuitable Equipment.”

“The [instructor pilot] repositioned his head to avoid the F-35 helmet green glow, when combined with a lack of natural lighting and the tanker lighting, the [instructor pilot] experienced Spatial Disorientation,” the Air Force Safety Center report said.

The F-35 pilot’s Helmet Mounted Display has three brightness settings—for night, day and auto. The day mode’s setting default is 500 foot-lamberts and the night’s default is 25 foot-lamberts. The report says the brightness in the lowest setting was a “causal factor” for the incident.

The report included a recommendation that the helmet’s brightness at its lowest level is too bright for night air-to-air refueling, and the helmet’s green lighting power output needs to be adjusted to make the lighting more dim.
“This would help pilots avoid having to reposition their heads to avoid the glow,” the report says.

The Eielson incident is at least the second in about eight months involving an Air Force F-35A. On May 19, 2020, an F-35A crashed as it was landing during a night flight at Eglin AFB, Florida, with the pilot able to eject. An Air Force Accident Investigation Board report found the pilot was increasingly distracted throughout the descent by the “green glow,” which affected his visibility, especially just before touching down. A misalignment of the Helmet-Mounted Display also caused him to misunderstand his altitude during landing.

The problem of the “green glow” has been reported since 2012, with the biggest concern being its impact on night carrier landings. The Defense Department’s Director of Operational Test and Evaluation in 2016 said the issue was a “Category 1” deficiency, affecting the safety of flight.

The JPO in a statement said its development effort prioritized an immediate engineering solution for Navy and Marine Corps F-35Cs, with 62 OLED helmets already delivered. Another 62 are expected in May 2022. In September 2021, the JPO contracted with Lockheed Martin to mature the current design for a long-term fix. Once this is tested, the JPO plans to buy production and retrofit helmets for Navy and Marine Corps F-35C pilots and, if required, the rest of the F-35 community.

“The other F-35 member services of the F-35 Partnership did not prioritize the OLED capability requirement, and hence were not part of the original OLED procurement for USN and USMC,” the JPO said.
 

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Finland Picks Lockheed Martin F-35A in $11 Billion Defense Deal

10 Dec 2021
Associated Press
By Jari Tanner

HELSINKI — Finland has agreed to buy 64 Lockheed Martin fighter jets to replace its aging fleet of combat planes in a 10 billion-euro ($11.3 billion) deal that represents the Finnish military's largest ever purchase, the government said Friday.

The Nordic country picked the U.S. company's F-35A fighters from among five contenders, which also included the Boeing F-18 Super Hornet, France's Dassault Rafale, Britain's Eurofighter Typhoon and Sweden's Saab Gripen.

The Finnish air force has a fleet of more than 60 F-18 Hornets, acquired in the early 1990s. It started looking for a successor aircraft in 2014.
Finnish Prime Minister Sanna Marin said her government’s decision, based on a recommendation by the Finnish Defense Forces, to purchase F-35A was unanimous.

“New fighters are a key part of Finland’s defense,” Marin told a press conference. “Fighters protect the integrity of Finnish airspace, protect society from airstrikes and support (Finnish) army and navy operations.”

The Defense Ministry said Friday that the price tag for the deal with Lockheed Martin includes training and other equipment.
The U.S. aerospace, arms and defense company said in a statement it was “honored" the Finnish government picked the F-35 “through its thorough, open competition.”

Lockheed Martin said the deal would include “a robust weapons package, a sustainment solution tailored to Finland’s unique security of supply requirements, as well as a comprehensive training program.”

European Union member Finland is a militarily non-aligned nation but closely cooperates with NATO in a way similar to neighboring Sweden.
Switzerland, another militarily non-aligned European country, and NATO members Denmark and Norway previously decided to buy the F-35.
Finland, which shares a 1,340-kilometer (832-mile) border with Russia, has increased its bilateral defense and military cooperation with Sweden, Norway and the United States in the past few years.

Bethesda, Maryland-based Lockheed Martin said Friday that there are currently more than 730 F-35s in service worldwide.
———
Jan M. Olsen in Copenhagen, Denmark contributed to this report.
 

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Dec. 27, 2021

Lockheed Martin Corp., Fort Worth, Texas, is awarded a $49,059,494 cost-plus-incentive-fee-contract that provides engineering and other related activities in support of the design and development of a Joint Strike Fighter aircraft variant tailored for an unspecified Foreign Military Sales (FMS) customer.

Work will be performed in Fort Worth, Texas (77%); Redondo Beach, California (14%); Orlando, Florida (6%); Baltimore, Maryland (1%); Owego, New York (1%) and Samlesbury, United Kingdom (1%), and is expected to be completed in December 2026.

FMS funds in the amount $49,059,494 will be obligated at time of award, none of which will expire at the end of the current fiscal year.

This contract was not competitively procured pursuant to 10 U.S. Code 2304(c)(1).

The Naval Air Systems Command, Patuxent River, Maryland, is the contracting activity (N0001922C0015).

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Lets see who can guess this "unspecified FMS customer" is.
 

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Anonymous F-35 Customer Is Getting A New Variant Of The Stealth Jet

An intriguing contract announcement reveals Lockheed Martin is working to design and develop a bespoke F-35 version for a foreign customer.
By Thomas Newdick @CombatAir
December 29, 2021

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Work is due to begin on a mysterious new variant of the F-35 stealth fighter for an as-yet-unnamed foreign customer. A contract announcement posted recently confirms that Lockheed Martin has received just over $49 million of Foreign Military Sales (FMS) funds to develop the unspecified “Joint Strike Fighter aircraft variant,” with speculation now focusing on what changes this could involve, and which operator it’s destined for.

The full contract announcement, published online December 27, reads as follows:
Lockheed Martin Corp., Fort Worth, Texas, is awarded a $49,059,494 cost-plus-incentive-fee-contract that provides engineering and other related activities in support of the design and development of a Joint Strike Fighter aircraft variant tailored for an unspecified Foreign Military Sales (FMS) customer.

Work will be performed in Fort Worth, Texas (77%); Redondo Beach, California (14%); Orlando, Florida (6%); Baltimore, Maryland (1%); Owego, New York (1%) and Samlesbury, United Kingdom (1%), and is expected to be completed in December 2026.

FMS funds in the amount $49,059,494 will be obligated at time of award, none of which will expire at the end of the current fiscal year. This contract was not competitively procured pursuant to 10 U.S. Code 2304(c)(1). The Naval Air Systems Command, Patuxent River, Maryland, is the contracting activity (N0001922C0015).


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ISRAELI AIR FORCE/AMIT AGRONOV
The Israeli Air Force’s uniquely outfitted test variant of the F-35I stealth fighter represents one approach to fielding a bespoke subvariant of the Joint Stike Fighter.

It seems highly unlikely that the new F-35 variant would be for a new, previously unannounced customer. It would be very unusual for the United States to award a contract for the development of an F-35 variant for a customer who has not already agreed to buy the aircraft.

The fact that the contract has been placed by Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) also doesn’t tell us more, since this serves not only as the contracting agency for all F-35 FMS customers but is also home to the entire F-35 Joint Program Office. Therefore, the aircraft could be a modification of the conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) F-35A, or the short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) F-35B. So far, there are no foreign customers for the F-35C carrier variant, which would rule out a development of this version.

Most likely, we are looking at a country-specific subvariant of an F-35A or B model. However, a NATO customer is probably less likely, considering that a truly bespoke variant would be at odds with interoperability requirements within the alliance.

As for what this new iteration of the Joint Strike Fighter might actually consist of, the chances are weighted highly in favor of a more modest modification, or series of changes, to suit the specific local requirements of a particular customer. After all, the price tag of $49 million for this contract is really not large in F-35 terms, especially as that covers work through December 2026. This is, of course, a program that has been regularly hit by spiraling costs that have affected export customers too.

F-35 modifications to meet local demands are not unprecedented. After all, many foreign F-35 customers request certain changes to their aircraft, frequently relating to weapons capabilities, but also other features, like the drag chute found on Norway’s F-35As and which has also been selected by Finland, the most recent Joint Strike Fighter customer.

An F-35A drag chute test in Norway:


More radical changes are embodied in Israel’s one-off test version of its F-35I “Adir,” specially equipped to put the type’s equipment through its paces, including aircraft and weapons trials, avionics integration, and airframe modification and testing. You can read all about the background to this unique F-35 model in this previous article.

In particular, the Israeli test jet will help with the introduction of Israeli-developed weapons destined for operational F-35Is, expected to include the Rafael SPICE precision-guided bomb, but potentially also air-to-air missiles and other weapons. The operational F-35Is are also adding specific communications and electronic warfare systems, which will be tested locally first. These jets are also distinct from other F-35As thanks to Israel’s ability to install its own distinct mission software and do so independent of the Autonomic Logistics Information System (ALIS), which also handles plenty of critical mission functions.

The new contract may well be for the continuation of work already underway, which could apply to Israel. Back in 2018, Lockheed won a contract to develop Israeli-specific modifications under the Block 3F+ production effort, with work due to run until the end of this year. This new contract could well serve to extend that work.

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ISRAELI AIR FORCE/AMIT AGRONOV
Frontline Israeli Air Force F-35I jets are receiving specific avionics, electronic warfare, and weapons.


Israel has in the past also looked at extending the range of its F-35I fleet by incorporating external fuel tanks and even conformal fuel tanks. Either of these would be especially useful for long-range strikes of the kind that the F-35I would likely be tasked with. The contract may have to do with integration work related to this.

On the other hand, not naming the FMS customer may point to Singapore, which has ordered an initial batch of just four F-35Bs that are scheduled to be delivered in 2026. That would not only tally with the timescale of the contract, but Singapore also often prefers not to be named in FMS contracts, citing operational security concerns.

Singapore, like Israel, has traditionally required additional unique capabilities to be integrated into its fighter jets and the F-35B may be no exception. Indeed, Singapore will be the first user to operate the STOVL version of the jet exclusively from land bases and may require modifications to its aircraft to suit its unique concept of operations. The first four Singaporean jets will be used to evaluate whether the F-35 really is a good fit for the tiny country, which could also point to aircraft configured more specifically for testing purposes.

In fact, Singapore could be looking to incorporate some of the same electronic warfare and/or weapons systems that Israel is installing in its F-35s, which would continue an established military relationship between those two countries.


One other factor specific to Singapore is the refueling capability for the F-35B variant it has selected. The STOVL model comes with a refueling probe as standard rather than the receptacle that’s used on the Republic of Singapore Air Force’s frontline F-15SG and F-16 tactical jets — as well as on F-35As. It’s conceivable that the modifications could relate to equipping Singaporean F-35Bs with a refueling receptacle, which would provide compatibility with the boom on its A330 Multi-Role Tanker Transport (MRTT) aircraft. While the MRTTs do feature wingtip pods for probe-and-drogue refueling, the receptacle offers much greater fuel transfer rates and could be an attractive capability for Singapore.


By the same token, it’s also possible that an F-35A customer is looking to outfit its receptacle-equipped jets with refueling probes. This could be a factor for a country like Finland, a recent Joint Strike Fighter customer, whose current F/A-18C/D fighters routinely refuel from pod-equipped tankers. This is not a new proposition. Lockheed is well aware of the potential for such a modification. Canada, for instance, would likely require the same configuration if they were to buy the F-35A. This would also make sense with the work being related to a new variant, as the outright configuration would differ from its F-35A counterparts.

Israel and Singapore are certainly both possible candidates for the mystery contract, but Steve Trimble, Defense Editor at Aviation Week, has pointed out that he thinks the work may be strictly limited perhaps to a handful of avionics revisions as requested by an existing customer.


If that’s the case, then the wording of the contract announcement is at least curious, pointing specifically to what’s described as a “tailored” new variant of the aircraft.

With that in mind, some observers have suggested that the work may refer to some previously unknown ‘downgraded’ export variant of the F-35, perhaps developed for a more sensitive customer with specific concerns around high-end capabilities or security issues. Taiwan or the United Arab Emirates would potentially fit those descriptions, but the very early nature of discussions about possible F-35 orders would also seem to make that all but impossible. While the UAE has at least been approved as a future F-35 customer, the future of such a deal hangs in the balance amid concerns over stringent safeguards to protect these systems against Chinese espionage, an issue you can read about here.

There have been other contracts related to specific modifications of the F-35 for FMS customers, even just this year. However, while thin on details, these have differed from the latest announcement in elements of their wording. While the costs involved are broadly similar in each case, they have applied to modifications that apply to multiple unidentified FMS customers, rather than just one. Among these earlier contracts, one valued at $13.7 million is for “support of sustainment efforts for flight test instrumentation air systems,” which could again point to the Israeli-specific test jet.



Beyond the possible need for a refueling probe on its A models, Finland has already said that its aircraft will feature some significant differences compared to other F-35As. According to the Finnish Air Force, “the solution encompasses the maintenance capabilities to be built in Finland as well as spare components and replaceable assemblies for exceptional circumstances that are under the sole national control of Finland as well as participation in the multinational maintenance network.”

Another non-aligned F-35 customer, Switzerland, could conceivably also be seeking to incorporate some special modifications in its jets, and tweaking the design to use a host of specific parts would likely be within the realm of something in this price range. However, both Finland and Switzerland are expecting to get their first F-35s in 2025, a year in advance of when work will be completed under this contract.

As it stands, we can only really speculate as to which F-35 customer is involved in this apparently bespoke work, while the degree of change in what’s purportedly a new variant of the jet is also unknown at this stage. Our best guess would be this pertains to giving the A model a refueling probe, necessitating its own variant terminology, but that is just a guess. We have reached out to NAVAIR for more information and will continue to bring you more details of this intriguing story just as soon as they emerge.

Contact the author: [email protected]
 
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South Korea grounds F-35A fleet after belly landing

Jan 7, 2022
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A U.S. F-35A fighter jet lands at Chungju Air Base on March 29, 2019 in Chungju, South Korea. South Korea has grounded its F-35As after one of the fighters was forced to conduct an emergency belly landing Tuesday, and an investigation is in the works. (South Korea Defense Acquisition Program Administration via Getty Images)

WASHINGTON — South Korea has grounded its fleet of F-35As after one of the aircraft had to conduct an emergency belly landing Tuesday.
Yonhap News Agency in Seoul reported that the F-35 was taking part in a training flight when it experienced issues with its avionics system. It was forced to land on its belly at Seosan Air Base south of Seoul when those problems caused the fighter’s landing gear to malfunction, Yonhap reported, citing officials there.

The pilot was unharmed, Yonhap reported. A fire engine had sprayed a special foam on the runway to keep the jet from sustaining serious damage during the skid.

South Korea’s air force plans to conduct a joint investigation with the U.S. military, Yonhap reported, and grounded its F-35A fighters in the meantime. South Korea plans to buy 40 F-35As in total, and has so far received more than 30 of them.

Lockheed Martin, which builds the F-35 Lightning II, said in a statement to Defense News it is “aware of the emergency landing that occurred Tuesday at Seosan Air Base and stand ready to support the Republic of Korea Air Force.” The company referred further questions to South Korea.

This is apparently the first time an F-35 has conducted a belly landing, Yonhap reported.

About Stephen Losey
Stephen Losey is the air warfare reporter at Defense News. He previously reported for Military.com, covering the Pentagon, special operations and air warfare. Before that, he covered U.S. Air Force leadership, personnel and operations for Air Force Times.


 

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Norway swaps in its F-35s for NATO quick-reaction mission in the High North

By Sebastian Sprenger
Jan 6, 2022
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One of the F-35A aircraft designated by Norway for a NATO quick-reaction alert role is pictured at Evenes Air Base. (Norwegian Air Force)

WASHINGTON – Norway has designated its F-35 aircraft for a NATO quick-reaction alert mission in the High North, ending a 42-year run of the country’s F-16s for that job, the government announced Jan. 6.

The Lockheed Martin-made jets are held at Evenes Air Base in northern Norway, with at least three ready to scramble within 15 minutes and examine potential airspace violations of Norway and, by extension, NATO. The fifth-generation aircraft have previously accompanied F-16s on such missions in anticipation of the formal takeover on Thursday.

The change in aircraft types further embeds the F-35 jet into the fabric of alliance patrol missions in Europe, just as Lockheed recently recorded initial wins in its sales campaigns for Finland and Switzerland.

Norway’s F-16 have operated the quick-reaction mission from Bodø Air Base for four decades, according to a defense ministry statement. The new location of Evenes puts the mission’s center of gravity about 100 miles further north.

The Norwegian military is expanding the base to also house P-8 Poseidon maritime patrol aircraft, putting key aerial and naval surveillance assets into an area that has seen an uptick in Russian military exercises.

Norway expects to have its fleet of 52 F-35s fully operational by 2025, according to the defense ministry. Aside from a handful of scramble-ready planes at Evenes, the fleet’s home base is Ørland, located in the south-central part of the country.

Meanwhile, the U.S. Defense Department continues to use F-16 aircraft in the Baltics, another hotspot for NATO air patrols along the border with Russia. American jets arrived in Poland earlier this month, joining Polish and Belgian F-16s to prepare for that mission, according to a Jan. 6 alliance statement.
 

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USN F35C that crashed on landing off USS Carl Vincennes a few days back.

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