Destroyers and Frigates

#1

Combat Medic

SENIOR MEMBER
Ratings
9 876 0
Joined
Nov 28, 2014
Messages
1,525
Likes
875
Country
USA
Location
United Arab Emirates
Sleek, modern and built on a budget – Denmark’s latest frigate
Christopher P. Cavas / November 21, 2014


Danes have a well-deserved reputation for designing and building efficient, effective ships on tight budgets. In line with the government’s desire to provide meaningful contributions to coalition and expeditionary forces, their newest ships have been designed to deploy well beyond Europe.

In recent years the Danish Navy has commissioned five impressive, modern warships fitted with sophisticated command and control and sensor suites and — when they’re eventually fully fitted out — powerful armaments. First came the combat support ships Absalon and Esbern Snare. Since their commissioning in 2004 and 2005, respectively, the two have deployed a number of times, in particular serving as flagships for anti-piracy forces patrolling off Somalia.

The design of the three Iver Huitfeldt-class frigates was based on the Absalons. Commissioned between 2012 and 2014, they represent a considerable achievement, built at a cost of $325 million apiece – virtually a bargain-basement price for a modern frigate.

The design team assembled by Odense Shipyard that was responsible for the ships continues as an entity, despite the yard’s closure following delivery of the last frigate.

We had an up-close chance to see the newest ship, Nils Juel, during the ship’s visit to the US in the fall of 2014. Turned over to the Navy and commissioned only in August, the frigate is still quite new, without many of the fittings and armaments that the Danes hope to field. Yet she crossed the Atlantic to take part in Exercise Bold Alligator along the eastern seaboard with US and other foreign navies. We caught her just after the exercise concluded, riding from Norfolk to Baltimore. Here’s a look at this impressive ship.

All photos by Christopher P. Cavas


Nils Juel is the third of three Iver Huitfeld-class air defense frigates. Iver Huitfeld was commissioned in February 2012, Peter Willemoes in January 2013 and Nils Juel in August 2014.


The forward superstructure is dominated by the Thales Active Phased Array Multifunction Radar (APAR), able to simultaneously support anti-air and anti-surface engagements.


The Danish frigates are big ships – 455 feet long overall, 65 feet in beam, with a draft of nearly 21 feet. Major hull components were built in Lithuania and Estonia and assembled in Denmark.


The ship’s clean lines are functional, reducing reflective surfaces to lower the ship’s radar signature.


A small Saab Ceros 200 fire control radar sits atop the pilot house among white-painted communications domes. The super firing guns are an unusual feature.


Hidden amidships are the ship’s missile batteries, flanked aft by enclosures to handle small boats. The aft superstructure is topped by the large Thales Smart-L three-dimensional radar.


The Smart-L radar sits atop a single helicopter hangar, flanked by the ship’s twin uptakes. .


Closer view of the Smart-L radar. A Rheinmetall Oerlikon 35mm Millenium close-in weapon system is to be installed atop the hangar. The Swiss-manufactured weapon is in service with the Danish and Venezuelan navies.


The Niels Juel’s Millenium gun was removed for further work prior to the fall 2014 deployment and a dummy mount installed in its place. This is not just a cosmetic move — the shape of the gun affects wind currents and eddies hitting the flight deck, which is certified based on a ship’s individual characteristics. To maintain the flight deck’s certified air flow an identical shape was necessary as a temporary replacement.


The ship’s wide beam is evident in this stern view. The similar Absalon-class combat support ships are fitted with a stern ramp to a mission bay in this area, but the frigates don’t carry that feature.


The APAR and Smart-L radars are part of a combat suite that is nearly identical to Dutch De Zeven Provincien-class and German Sachsen-class frigates.


The spacious bridge spans the full width of the ship.


The helmsman sits at a raised console in the center of the pilothouse, steering with a joystick.


A view out the ship’s bridge windows at the foredeck, where safety gear is required. The two sailors here are rigging festive lighting for the ship’s visit to Baltimore.


Detail of one of the navigational displays on either side of the pilothouse.


Ship’s captain Commander Senior Grade Lars Holbæk addresses the crew over the ship’s announcement system just after leaving Norfolk, while Lars Schwetje, multimedia director for Gannett Government Media, shoots video.


Electro Officer Christian Jens, in the foreground at left, oversees operations in the ship’s Engineering Control center. With a crew of only 117, the Nils Juel relies on a high degree of automation. Fifty cameras monitor key spaces around the ship — at upper right, one of them shows a view of the helicopter hangar.
 
#2

Combat Medic

SENIOR MEMBER
Ratings
9 876 0
Joined
Nov 28, 2014
Messages
1,525
Likes
875
Country
USA
Location
United Arab Emirates

One of the ship’s four MTU 20V M70 diesels. Together, they provide 32.8 megawatts to drive the ship’s two propeller shafts. The diesels are able to propel the ship at just over 30 knots, but at lower speeds, the ships are able to travel well over 9,000 nautical miles — enough to travel from Denmark to the US and back again with more in the tank.


Another view of the forward machinery room. These spaces, along with most of the ship’s lower hull, were designed primarily by Maersk, the huge Danish shipping firm. Use of commercial features combined with military requirements was key to keeping construction costs down.


A spacious workshop is fitted between the two machinery rooms. Overhead rails allow heavy gear to be moved around the ship. Many cabling wire ways also are nearly empty – a design feature to make installation of future improvements easier.


A view of the forward deck, with one of the ship’s 76mm guns at right. The large canisters in the center hold inflatable life rafts.


Two Italian-made 76mm Oto Melara guns are fitted forward — unusually for post-World War II ships, in a super-firing arrangement (one over the other). The guns are reconditioned units from decommissioned patrol ships. The base ring for the forward mount is sized to take a US-built Mark 45 five-inch gun, but funding for the mount — at about $50 million each — has yet to be approved. Eventually, the Danish Navy hopes to install another close-in weapon system in the No. 2 position.


The revolving ready-ammunition magazine for one of the 76mm gun mounts. Variants of the lightweight Oto Melara are one of the most popular gun mounts in the world, in no small part because of their minimal impact on ship designs.


The missile bay amidships is fitted with three different types of launchers. At center is a new 32-cell Mark 41 Vertical Launch System from Lockheed Martin, able to handle Standard SM-2 and SM-6 missiles. The weapons have yet to be purchased, however, and the system is not yet operational. Flanking the Mark 41 are two Raytheon Mark 56 missile launchers to handle Evolved Sea Sparrow (ESSM) anti-air missiles. Just visible in the foreground are the support structures for Boeing Harpoon surface-to-surface missiles. Both the Mark 56 and Harpoon launchers come from decommissioned ships. None of these launchers are yet operational, but the ship plans to fire both ESSM and Harpoon missiles in Spring 2015 to certify the systems.


The Harpoon supports in the foreground show blast wear — evidence of their prior service aboard older patrol boats.


The frigates do not have conventional masts, although halyards are rigged from several supports to provide flag hoists. The twin uptakes are staggered and angled outward to minimize heat signatures and damage to sensors. The tower mast at center is topped by a tactical air navigation system beacon (TACAN), necessary for aircraft to return to the ship.


Sailors hoist in one of the ship’s two rigid-hull inflatable boats (RHIBs). Only three sailors are needed to handle the operation.


A view forward of the ship’s APAR superstructure, flanked by satellite communications domes. The crane is installed to handle missiles.


The large flight deck is limited to aircraft of 20,000 pounds — big enough for EH-101 and NH-90 helicopters. The flight control station is at left.


Looking forward inside the single hangar, with the ship’s brow (gangway) stored at left. While the Danish Navy operates Sea Lynx Mark 90B helicopters, no aircraft were carried on the fall 2014 deployment. Denmark is procuring new Sikorsky MH-60R helicopters, but the first units won’t be delivered until 2017.


View in the hangar looking aft. The single hangar is somewhat unusual in an era where many expeditionary ships have dual hangars.


The ship paused off Annapolis, Maryland to embark distinguished visitors. Here, Danish ambassador to the U.S. Peter Taksøe-Jensen reviews his honor guard after coming aboard.


The third deck is flanked by two passageways running nearly the length of the ship. Sailors wash down the P-ways nearly every day, keeping the entire ship scrupulously clean.


An athwartships passage on the third deck with red night lighting.


A junior officer’s stateroom on the ship is fitted in the same manner as all staterooms, whether for enlisted, senior enlisted, or officers. Computer installations are standard. Rooms are carpeted, with drop ceilings and recessed lighting. The ladders to the top berths are a nice feature – something still unusual on a US Navy ship. All staterooms are fitted with a toilet and shower.


Crew members displayed a variety of uniform and grooming standards. T-shirts and beards were common, along with a few pony tails. Four female enlisted sailors were included in the crew of about 100 on this cruise, along with a woman doctor. Doctors are assigned only to ships on deployment.


The Iver Huitfeldt-class frigates could be the last major warships built or assembled in Denmark, since the yard closed with the delivery of the Nils Juel. The 2012 date reflects when the ship was delivered to the government. The technical know-how which designed the ships is still together, however, as Odense Maritime Technology.
 
#3

Combat Medic

SENIOR MEMBER
Ratings
9 876 0
Joined
Nov 28, 2014
Messages
1,525
Likes
875
Country
USA
Location
United Arab Emirates
A closer look at the 'Modified LCS'




The announcement Dec. 11 by the senior leadership of the Pentagon and US Navy that the Small Surface Combatant (SSC) will be a modified version of existing Littoral Combat Ships (LCS) was no surprise to most followers of this saga. What was surprising was the absence of any major changes to the ships.



Here are the designs presented by the Navy that show what changes will be made to the designs of Lockheed Martin's Freedom (LCS 1)-class and Austal USA's Independence (LCS 2)-class ships. Both teams gave the Navy several options for what could be done with their designs — we show high-end illustrations of them next to what the Navy has chosen.

By the way, the Navy hasn't yet decided what to call the new ships. The office of the secretary of defense (OSD) uses SSC, but in its briefs to the media on Dec. 11 the Navy scrupulously avoided the term, calling the ships "Modified Littoral Combat Ships (LCS)." "We haven't gotten to the nomenclature yet," Adm. Jon Greenert, chief of naval operations, told reporters.

The Navy's brief lists the changes and additions to the ships. Changes are on the right, in yellow. (US Navy)

Here's the modified Freedom-class variant. The Navy will retain a mission-centric configuration for the ships for anti-submarine (ASW) and surface (SUW) warfare, although to a much lesser degree than existing LCSs. These illustrations show the ships configured for SUW, with 30mm guns installed. (US Navy)


___(Photo: ___)


Here's an illustration Lockheed provided of their "up-gunned" LCS proposal for the SSC. It shows the ship fitted with vertical-launch missile systems (VLS), a 76mm gun, and more capable sensors. The ships are shown launching Standard SM-2 surface-to-air missiles from the forward VLS and Harpoon surface-to-surface missile from tube launchers fitted amidships. (Lockheed Martin)


___(Photo: ___)

Lockheed also prepared variants of the design for the international market, with hulls larger and smaller than the US Navy's 118-meter long version. The top ship is 150 meters long, with VLS fore and aft, a bigger gun, and a phased-array sensor suite. The LCS 1-class hull is center, with an 85-meter corvette at bottom. All the variants are fitted with a hull-mounted sonar. (Lockheed Martin)


____(Photo: ____)


This is the version of Austal USA's Independence class LCS selected by the Navy as the Modified LCS. It shows the same upgrades and changes as on the modified Freedom-class ship. (US Navy)


___(Photo: ___)


Here's Austal USA's SSC proposal, powerfully armed, like the Lockheed ship, with VLS, a bigger gun, and a more capable sensor suite. The ship is depicted launching a Harpoon missile. The VLS launchers are abreast the stack atop the superstructure. (Austal USA)




A closer look at the 'Modified LCS'
 
#4
Ratings
0 15 0
Joined
Dec 29, 2014
Messages
125
Likes
15
Country
USA
Location
USA
Nice photos, This ship looks well put together, they did a good job for a ship on a budget. It has a modern fell to it.
 
#5
Ratings
0 18 0
Joined
Jan 1, 2015
Messages
59
Likes
18
Country
USA
Location
USA
Very thorough review of the frigate. These ships now are floating cities that are fully equipped to defend themselves. We don't see this often where these technological works of wonder are shared for public knowledge.

Great work on sharing the photos and giving a great analysis of the ship. Well done!
 
#6

Scorpion

THINK TANK
Ratings
25 1,874 0
Joined
Nov 27, 2014
Messages
2,738
Likes
1,893
Country
Saudi Arabia
Location
Saudi Arabia
THE GREAT ASIAN SHOWDOWN : INDIA’S KOLKATA CLASS V/S CHINA’S TYPE-52D DESTROYER








This is my first article which involves comparing major frontline warships. In this article I will compare the most powerful destroyers of the Chinese Navy and the India Navy, The Type-52D class and Kolkata class respectively. The reason I’m choosing to compare these two is because they are the newest destroyers of their respective nations and incorporate multifunction AESA radars and long range missiles with vertical launch capabilities. They pack a formidable punch but they have their strengths and weaknesses. These two ships will be the primary escorts of the Chinese Navy and Indian Navy carriers for years to come. They are game changers for their respective nations. All these will be discussed in detail in the comparison below. I am comparing only the most important aspects of each ship.

10 points have been allocated for each category and it will be totaled up at the end of the comparison. This is entirely my opinion and analysis and you are free to make your own analysis or suggestions in the comment section below as a good discussion is always appreciated.

DESIGN

Kolkata Class:



Photo © Livefist

The Kolkata follows the Soviet tradition of having an assortment of weapons at the bow on various raised platforms. It has a 163 m long hull which is retained from its predecessor, Delhi class. It displaces around 6700 tons when fully loaded. The massive size of the ship allows the installation of a wide range of sensors and weapons. The Indians have chosen to leave a lot of deck space for future additions and upgrades.

Type 52D:



This uses essentially the same hull as its predecessor, the Type-52C. Its hull is slightly smaller at 154 m, but it displaces around 7500 tons when fully loaded suggesting that it is packed to the brim with sensors and weapons and there is hardly any space left for additions of new systems.

ELECTRONIC SENSORS
  • RADAR
Kolkata Class:



MF-STAR AESA radar

This is the first Indian warship to use an Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar, which has 4 static panels instead of a single rotating panel. This Multi-Function radar also allows for the replacement of a dozen other smaller search, track and fire control radars with a single system. The Israeli MF-STAR has been chosen for this role. It is mounted very high up on a specially built mast.

The MF-STAR operates in the S-band of radio frequency. It consists of 4 panels mounted on each side of the main mast. This radar is capable of performing a variety of functions like
  • Long range surface surveillance​
  • Long range 3D air surveillance​
  • Gunnery control​
  • Target classification​
  • Simultaneous multi-engagement support​
  • Guidance for active and semi active missiles​
These features make the INS Kolkata, the most advanced radar platform in the Indian Navy. The radar is said to be capable of guiding 24 missiles at once to hit 12 targets. This gives the ship an ability to defend itself against saturation air attacks depending on the number of available missiles. The MF-STAR is capable of detecting large aerial targets at distances >250 km and sea skimming cruise missiles at ranges >25 km. The actual values are much higher and are classified. Since Israel is one of the leading makers of radars, I will give them the benefit of doubt and award them with a high rating.



LW-08

Its secondary radar is a Thales LW-08 2D radar which operates in the D-Band. It’s a long range surveillnce radar and provides target indication to weapon control systems.

It scores 10/10 in this category

Type-52D:



Type-348 AESA

The primary radar, the Type-348, is similar in arrangement to the SPY-1 radars of the American AEGIS system. It is a dual band AESA which has 4 square panels mounted on 4 sides of the superstructure. This radar is said to have a range of 350 km and is primarily associated with the HQ-9 SAM. China claims that this radar has the capability to detect stealth fighters like the F-35, but i seriously doubt this claim.



Type 517 radar

The secondary radar on board is the Type-517 A-band VHF air search radar. The biggest problem is that, details of new Chinese radars aren’t available anywhere. But their radars, though powerful, aren’t on par with the western radars.

It scores 8/10 in this category.

WEAPONS

Both these ships rely mainly on vertically launched missiles as their primary weapon and guns as their secondary weapon. The Type52D possesses a Universal Vertical Launcher system with 64 cells which can fire any type of missile from Surface to Air, Surface to Surface to Anti-Submarine missiles. The Kolkata meanwhile makes use of a fixed missile launch VLS which can launch only one type of missile.
  • SURFACE WARFARE
Kolkata Class:



16 BrahMos VLS and a 76 mm gun

India has chosen to make this class excel in surface warfare. Its main armament is a battery of 16 vertically launched BrahMos supersonic long range Anti-Ship missiles. This is by far one of the deadliest missile armament of contemporary warships. It can hit ships at ranges of around 300 km with extreme accuracy. It has 2 flight paths, 120 km range in sea skimming profile or 300 km range in a high altitude with a terminal 40 km sea skimming profile. The missile maintains a speed of Mach 2-3 throughout its flight, which makes it extremely difficult for modern defense systems to shoot it down. There is space behind the 16 VLS cells for a batch of 8 more cells, but has been left empty. I strongly feel that India will install their new Land Attack Cruise Missile, the 1000 km range Nirbhay in that space once it has entered service.



Photo © Ria Novosti

Secondary surface warfare capability is provided by its 76 mm Oto Melara super rapid gun, which can fire 120 rounds per minute up to a distance of 15 km against surface targets and up to 8 km against aerial targets. This gun is supposed to be extremely effective against low flying aircraft and cruise missiles. The small caliber of this gun limits its range and effectiveness in shore bombardment roles. It is unknown whether India has procured guided shells for use with this gun.

It’s limited 16 missile loadout and the small caliber main gun ensures that it bags 9/10in this category

Type 52D:



32 x 2 Vertical Launch Cells

The configuration of this ship for surface warfare can be changed based on mission requirements due to its Universal Vertical Launchers which can fire any type of missile. An ideal layout would consist of 16 YJ-12Anti-Ship Missiles (AShM) for surface warfare. The range of the missile is said to vary from 220 km to around 350-400 km depending on flight profile. The only drawback of this missile over BrahMos is that it travels at subsonic speeds at 40 km altitude and reaches supersonic speeds only during the final dive towards its target, which makes it easy to intercept using long and medium range missiles during the subsonic phase. But an alternate high-low flight profile gives it a range of 250-300 km, putting it in the same category as the Indian BrahMos. Nevertheless, a large number of these missiles can be fired which gives it the ability to saturate modern air defenses.

The flexibility of the UVLS allows it to practically carry 32 AShMs on a dedicated surface warfare mission which is a huge advantage over the fixed 16 AShM loadout on INS Kolkata. This would give it the best AShM loadout among contemporary ships, but a balanced load would be 16 AShMs. The best bet against a salvo of YJ-12 missiles would be a layered air defense system.



Secondary surface warfare capability is provided by a 130 mm main gun. This has an effective range of over 25 km against surface targets and can prove to be very useful in shore bombardment missions. Its capability against aircraft and missiles is very limited. The ability to carry a 16-32 missiles and the presence of a large caliber main gun ensure that it gets 10/10 in this category.
  • ANTI-AIR WARFARE
Kolkata Class:

The primary SAM on board the Kolkata is the Barak-8 which has been jointly developed by India and Israel. This 70 km range missile is designed from the start to intercept supersonic cruise missiles which travel a few meters above water which makes it perfect for missile defense. It is housed in specific launchers at the fore and aft of the ship. The total loadout is 32 missiles though there is easily enough space to mount 64 cells of Barak-8 missiles in the future. The Barak-8 s very unique because it has a minimum range of just 0.5 km when similar missiles have a minimum range of 3-4 km. This enables it to intercept missiles very close to the ship and it performs the role of a point defense SAM as well. 12 Barak-8 can be guided at once to intercept



Mockup of Barak-8

It lacks a secondary layer SAM system and all the burden is on the 32 Barak-8 to perform area defense, missile defense and point defense duties. But its current load of 32 Barak-8 is highly insufficient for a destroyer of this size in a modern day conflict. Ships of the same category of other nations carry 48-96 SAMs in comparison.



Ak-630

The role of CIWS is left to the 4 AK-630 6 barreled, 30 mm Gatling guns which is a last ditch defense against missiles. It has an effective range of 4 km. The 76 mm main gun also has excellent anti-air capability and can complement the CIWS with its effective range of 8 km against aerial threats. All these guns are open loop and depend on the sensors and radars mounted on the ship. The advantage is that these sensors can detect targets at long ranges as they are mounted high up and increase the effective range of these guns. If it had the 10 km range Barak-1 like its predecessor, it would have had a 3 layered air defense system with a total of 64 missiles. The current 2 layered air defense system leaves it vulnerable to a saturation attack as it can run out of missiles very fast.

It scores a 7/10 in the CIWS category

It scores a 10/10 in the missile defense category.

It scores a 4/10 in the area defense category.

Type-52D:

This is one category where the Chinese have an edge over the Indians. The Type-52D can carry 64 Surface to Air missiles (SAMs) theoretically on a pure anti-air mission. But practically its loadout will be 32-48 cells of SAMs. Its primary SAM is the HQ-9B which is a long range area defense SAM. It has a slant range of 200 km which gives it a unique advantage over the Kolkata. It can shoot down a missile launch platform like fighter aircraft at 200 km before the fighter can fire its AShMs at it. The ability to destroy missile launch platforms means that it can prevent saturation missile attacks. The only thing that needs to be considered is an Airborne Radar platform like the Ka-31 in order to detect and guide the HQ-9B to hit low flying targets at 200 km. High altitude aerial targets can be detected by the ship’s radar and engaged independently.



HQ-9B Vertical Launch

The secondary air defense is provided by the HQ-16 SAM which has a range of 50 km. There are rumors that the Chinese are developing a new medium range SAM that can be quad packed in 1 UVLS cell. If this is true, it would allow the Chinese to have a huge number of missiles on board as 32 such medium range missiles can be packed into 8 cells. The ability of the HQ-9B to engage sea skimming missiles at short ranges is seriously doubted. Hence, to complement the HQ-16, the Chinese have installed a short range missile system FL-3000N to deal with sea skimming missiles at ranges of 10 km. An 18 cell FL-3000N launcher is installed on top of the hangar at the aft. This missile is comparable to the American RAM in dimensions and role.



FL-3000N



Type 730 CIWS

The last ditch anti-missile capability is provided by a Type 730 Close in Weapons system. This has a 6 barreled 30 mm Gatling gun which can effectively engage sea skimming missiles at a range of 2 km. It is a closed loop CIWS and unlike the Ak-630, it has its own radar and electro-optical sensors which reduce its dependency on ship borne sensors and allow it to operate independently. This, combined with the missiles give the Type-52D a 4 layer air defense system, which is definitely an advantage over the 2 layered air defense system of the Kolkata.

It scores an 8/10 in the CIWS category

It scores an 8/10 in the missile defense category.

It scores a 10/10 in the area defense category.
  • ANTI SUBMARINE WARFARE
Kolkata Class:

This class has a very well balanced suite of ASW weapons, platforms and sensors. The Sonar is an indigenously developed HUMSA bow sonar and the towed array is yet to be procured. This is a temporary hindrance and it will most likely receive a Thales ATAS soon.



RBU-6000

The main ASW weapon will be its 2 twin 533 mm torpedo tubes which can fire long range, heavyweight torpedoes with a range of up to 40 km. It is complemented by the RBU-6000 rocket launching system. This unique system can launch a variety of ASW rockets fitted with mines, explosives or decoys. 2 launchers with a total of 24 rocket tubes and 192 reloadable rockets are carried. This system has a range of 6 km max which makes it effective against submarines in littoral ad blue water regions. It can also act as a hardkill measure against incoming torpedoes if sufficient warning is there. The other role it can fulfill is that of anti-frogman where it can fire death charges against combat divers who try to sabotage ships.



The dual helicopter hangars

Beyond the horizon ASW capability is provided by ASW helicopters. The Kolkata has 2 large hangars which can support any modern ASW helicopter. Since India is most likely to procure MH-60R as its next ASW helo, 2 of those on a destroyer would make it extremely effective against enemy submarines. Currently it can deploy the Seaking ASW helo which can carry 2 lightweight torpedoes. Overall the Kolkata class has a well-balanced and powerful ASW capability on par with its western equivalents.

It scores 9/10 in ASW

Type-52D:



Bow mounted sonar

The Type-52D has a bow mounted sonar and a towed array sonar. Its main ASW weapon is 2 triple mountings for a total of 6 lightweight torpedo tubes. These have a range of around 15 km. It also has 4, 18 tube ASW rocket launchers, which are non-reloadable and have a range of around 1 km. It is used to fire decoys against incoming torpedoes and to act as last ditch defense against submarines.



Single helicopter hangar and ASW rocket launchers (highlighted)

It is rumored that it can fire a vertically launched ASW missile with a range of 30 km. But this report hasn’t been confirmed and there is no evidence of such a missile. Over the horizon ASW capability is provided by a single ASW helicopter. This offers half the capability of the Kolkata which can house 2 helicopters. Overall, the ASW reach of this ship is comparatively lower than the Kolkata class. It is the only category where the Indian ship dominates.

The Great Asian Showdown : India&[HASHTAG]#8217[/HASHTAG];s Kolkata Class v/s China&[HASHTAG]#8217[/HASHTAG];s Type-52D Destroyer | Defencyclopedia
 
#7

Scorpion

THINK TANK
Ratings
25 1,874 0
Joined
Nov 27, 2014
Messages
2,738
Likes
1,893
Country
Saudi Arabia
Location
Saudi Arabia
LITTORAL WARFARE
Littoral warfare is the art of fighting a war in the areas of the sea close to the coastline, around islands, in the middle of restricted water bodies, in short, away from the deep ocean. This kind of warfare is drastically different from open ocean naval warfare.

The main reasons are:

■ The water bodies are usually confined In areas like a gulf region, island chains etc. Since there is limited space, large vessels which have a slow speed will be ineffective.

■ Midget submarines and quiet diesel submarines can lurk in the shallow water and hide without making noise

■ Since it is close to the coast, the enemy will use fast attack boats armed with missiles. The missile attacks in a swarm cam overwhelm even the most modern air defense systems

■ The shallow waters and limited space require the use of tactics which are different from open ocean.



A graphic representation of the littoral zone © fisheries.org

A littoral warfare vessel must be fast, agile, well-armed, and able to defend itself and have a very shallow drought. Ideally they have a surface, air search radar and / or Sonar. Their propulsion is mainly diesel engine or pumpjet which give a high speed. Its armament usually consists of a rapid firing medium caliber cannon, Anti-Ship missiles, torpedoes and short range Surface to Air missiles. They are either built for a single purpose like anti-surface or Anti-Submarine warfare or multi-role vessels with anti-surface, ship and air abilities are built. They can displace anywhere between 300 to 3000 tons depending on the country’s requirement.

Countries like Russia, China and India have extremely capable littoral warfare capabilities as they operate large numbers of high speed missile-gun fast attack boats. They are also the largest operators of diesel electric submarines in the world which are the silent killers in a littoral environment. The threat of quiet diesel submarines is well known. Even the best navies in the world have struggled to detect these ultra-quiet submarines. Israel is a country which is forced to use littoral vessels as its territorial waters is a confined and relatively shallow region.



Veer class corvette of Indian Navy



The Russian Buyan M class corvette

USA has realized the need to bolster its littoral warfare capability and has introduced the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS). These are ultra-high tech, ultra-high expensive, high speed littoral combat vessels. Instead of focusing on ships which displace around 1000 tons like their Asian counterparts, US has gone with large vessels which displace 3000+ tons and carry helicopters as well. Russia too has supplemented its light missile boats with 2100 tons corvettes which carry heavy armament and a helicopter as well. This seems to be the new trend as India too is building Anti-Submarine corvettes displacing 3000+ tons. European countries with confined territorial waters also operate fast attack boats which pack a punch against big warships.



LCS Independence of US Navy



Stereguschy class corvette of Russian Navy

The advantage of these vessels is their ability to operate in areas which have only around 15 feet of water. Other vessels like frigates would not be able to operate in these regions. The especially low draught of littoral warfare vessels is what makes this possible. Larger vessels perform inadequately in a shallow water environment. Sonars designed for deep water use will give confusing readings in shallow water. Torpedoes designed for ocean use will face problems finding targets and attacking them in shallow water. This is due to the difference in acoustic performance caused by the shallow waters and the obstructions present in them. A powerful destroyer will be vulnerable to fast attack craft in littoral warfare as it won’t have the speed or maneuverability to operate in confined waters. Trying to do so would be like riding an elephant in a densely packed jungle. It can’t move fast and is vulnerable to faster and deadlier animals. Similarly larger ships are vulnerable. It’s specifically for this reason that littoral warships have been developed.

The sensors on these ships are usually of a short range. The sonar will be designed to operate specifically in shallow water without any confusion. But nowadays, some littoral vessels also possess the ability to fight in deep waters. Large littoral warfare ships have powerful sensors which makes them a dual asset which can operate freely in oceans as well as littorals. Stereguschy class, Independence class, Kora class are some examples of large littoral vessels which possess the ability to operate in oceans as well as littoral regions.






ORIGINS



The US Navy realized the need to have a fleet of fast and agile vessels capable of operating in confined waters against enemy fast attack boats and diesel submarines after their long deployments in the Persian Gulf. Their fleet of large destroyers had their limitations and they had to ferry their coast guard vessels, patrol boats and minesweepers to the Persian Gulf in order to provide close protection from small enemy craft. However the bombing of the destroyer, USS Cole by a small boat filled with explosives, accelerated the development of the Littoral Combat Ship. The logic was, a slow destroyer needed time to power up and couldn’t maneuver in confined waters, whereas a fast LCS could start up and reach top speed very quickly and put itself out of danger.

OBJECTIVE

Perry class frigate



Avenger class minesweeper



Littoral Combat Ship
The LCS program aimed to develop a multi role ship which could operate in littoral waters, engage enemy submarines, clear mines, destroy fast attack boats, deploy unmanned vehicles and perform a variety of other missions by fitting them with mission modules according to situational requirements. It would also have a pumpjet propulsion which gives them a very high speed in excess of 40 knots. The program turned out to be insanely expensive and was on the verge of collapse several times due to high costs. But the US policy of pouring money into a project till it comes back on track was used and the LCS entered production. The US Navy will replace its remaining fleet of Perry class frigates and Avenger class minesweepers with this ship. Although this program has faced immense criticism, it is something which is suited only for the US Navy as they have the world’s largest fleet of destroyers and cruisers and they need a lower end and lightly armed ship to complement them.

WEAPONS AND SENSORS
There are two classes of LCS which have been ordered by the US Navy. The Independence class and the Freedom class. Both these ships have excellent designs and the Independence class is unique with its highly stable trimaran design and is the first operational warship of this kind. Both these classes of ships have been built with one main task in mind, the destruction of enemy speedboats and fast attack craft in a hostile littoral environment. These ships use a lot of ultra-high technology and are among the most advanced warships in the world. The unique mission modules are of 3 types and typically use these weapons.
  • Anti-surface : 2 x 30 mm Bushmaster cannons, Vertically launched Griffin/Hellfire missiles to engage small boats​
  • Anti-Submarine : 2 triple 324 mm torpedo tubes for lightweight torpedoes, Unmanned underwater vehicles, Towed array sonar​
  • Mine hunting : Remote mine detection vehicles, Mine detection Sonar​


Weapons and sensors on Independence class


Mission module space on Freedom class © Seaforces.org



Surface Warfare package on Freedom class




Along with these modules, a 57 mm Bofors gun and a multirole helicopter are fixed for every mission. The sensors on these ships are also advanced and suited for littoral warfare. They have a sonar, a 3D multifunction radar and other advanced sensors. A very high degree of automation in the ships allows them to have a very small crew of around 50 whereas similar ships operated by other countries have a crew of 100-150. The extremely small crew may prove to be a handicap during damage control operations which require manpower. This has been felt by the Navy when several breakdowns had the small crew working overtime to repair it. Also the aluminum superstructure of the ship can be dangerous as aluminum burns fast and releases toxic fumes when it melts.

SHIPS


Independence class showing large helicopter deck

The beautiful trimaran design of the Independence class is what makes it stand out from all the warships in the world. This design allows enormous space inside the ship, high stability and speed and has a dual hangar with a huge helicopter deck which enables it to operate every helicopter in the US inventory. This would be immensely useful during special operations, humanitarian relief and amphibious landings. It has a large mission bay which can house cargo or mission modules depending on the requirement. It has a self-contained SeaRam missile system which has a load of 11 Short range Surface to air missiles for self-defense. This class also possesses a huge mission bay which can house a variety of boats, equipment, vehicles, weapons etc. This design is suitable for blue water operations too and it will be deployed in the Pacific.


The Freedom class at high speed
The Freedom class LCS uses a conventional monohull design along with a similar propulsion and sensor suite as the Independence class. It has slightly better air defense due to the presence of a 21 cell RAM Surface to Air missile launcher. It has the capability to house and operate a single helicopter from its helicopter deck. The mission module capabilities are similar to the Independence class. The USS Freedom suffered from a string of problems and breakdowns which attracted more criticism towards the program. However the Navy claims that the problems have been rectified with the upcoming ships in the class. Only an active deployment in a hostile zone filled with enemy fast attack craft and diesel submarines will show how capable these ships actually are and if they are worth the huge price tag.

CONCLUSION


The designs of both the classes are excellent and theoretically meet all the objectives of the US Navy. But the LCS has proved to be very limited in its functionality even though it has been built to perform a variety of functions. Many of the weapons which are supposed to form a major part of the mission packages haven’t been developed yet and they are using temporary stop gap solutions. 32 ultra-expensive ships, built to kill speedboats using ultra expensive short range missiles sounds like overkill. No other nation has a similar policy and prefer using medium caliber guns with guided shells instead, which is several times cheaper than and as effective as the American program. This is one of the main reason why the LCS program has come under immense criticism. The US Navy has also realized that these ships have no warfighting capabilities and are on the hunt for a new class of better armed frigates. The high tech sensors and weapons on the LCS don’t allow it to engage targets more than 10-20 km away from it. The absence of long range systems combined with its limited ASW and Air defense capabilities and insane costs, make the LCS a very expensive toy indeed. But this is a toy which is suited only for the US Navy and only they can afford to play with it.
 
#8

fire421

NEW RECRUIT
Ratings
0 1 0
Joined
Jan 3, 2015
Messages
22
Likes
1
Country
USA
Location
USA
The ship looks great and protected.
 
#9

Combat Medic

SENIOR MEMBER
Ratings
9 876 0
Joined
Nov 28, 2014
Messages
1,525
Likes
875
Country
USA
Location
United Arab Emirates
As the title says it, destroyers and Frigates news and discussions.

FREMM multipurpose frigate





The FREMM European multimission frigate is a joint programme between France and Italy. It will build 21 FREMM frigates for the French Navy and the Italian Navy. The frigates are 140m in overall length and 20m wide with displacement of 6,000t. The ship's complement is 108 officers and crew. The prime contractors for the FREMM programme are Armaris of France and Orizzonte Sistemi Navali of Italy.


"The frigates are 140m in overall length and 20m wide with displacement of 6,000t."
Teseo mk2 uses command updated inertial guidance and has a range of up to 55km. Two DCNS Sylver A43 vertical launch systems will be fitted to each ship.


The frigates will be equipped with MBDA's Milas all-weather anti-submarine warfare weapon system. Milas, a derivative of Otomat mk2, carries and releases a lightweight torpedo, such as an MU-90, close to the designated hostile submarine. The submarine's position is indicated by the ship's sonar or by other assets, such as an ASW helicopter or maritime patrol aircraft.

The vessel's sonar suite includes Thales Type 4110 hull-mounted sonar. The three anti-submarine warfare vessels will also be equipped with Thales Type 4929 active very-low-frequency towed array sonars.

The EMPAR G-band multifunction phased array radar from Selex Sistemi Integrati will be the fire control radar for the missile systems. The vessel's infra-red search and track (IRST) system is the Galileo Avionica SASS (silent acquisition surveillance system).


Sensors, command and control
"The frigates will be equipped with MBDA's Milas all-weather anti-submarine warfare weapon system."
Thales is responsible for the development and supply of the French FREMM surveillance and communications suites.

Systems will include Thales Artemis infra-red search and track (IRST) system and the Herakles 3D S-band multifunction surveillance and fire control radar for the frigates' anti-air weapons systems.


Artemis is based on medium-wave staring focal plane arrays and uses multiple static sensor heads rather than mechanical scanning. Herakles has a range of 250km against air targets and 80km against surface targets.

The upgradeable high-performance combat system by DCN and Thales is based on a high-speed data network. The combat system architecture will enable future weapon systems to be integrated into the frigates.

The ship's Nato standard external communications include Link 11, Link 16, Link 22 and JSAT tactical data links, allowing full interoperability with Nato forces.

Internal communications include messaging, conventional and wireless telephony, public address, closed circuit television and internet and intranet ports.

Missile variations and weaponry
For anti-ship capability, the French FREMMs are to be armed with MBDA's Exocet MM40 block three anti-ship missiles, which will be controlled via a CMS multifunction console by a Mer-Mer weapon control system. Block three missiles have longer range and an enhanced navigation system to give a littoral attack capability.



The MBDA Aster 15 air defence missile system for the AVT and ASW French frigates will provide protection against supersonic and subsonic threats. Aster 15 has a minimum range of 1.7km and a maximum range of 30km against subsonic airborne threats.

The MBDA Scalp Naval vertically launched cruise missile will provide the French AVT FREMM's land attack capability.

The Sylver A-70 vertical launcher was developed by DCN Ruelle. The missiles use inertial guidance and electro-optical terrain contour matching (TERCOM) in the terminal target approach phase of flight. Scalp Naval has a range of more than 1,000km.

The French FREMM's main gun is the Oto Melara medium calibre 76/62 Super Rapide naval gun. The gun interfaces to an optronic fire control system. The gun is controlled control either via a CMS multifunction console or through a visual weapons director on the bridge. Four 12.7mm machine guns are installed for close-in defence.
Torpedoes and countermeasures of the multimission frigates
The French vessels will be armed with the Eurotorp MU 90 Impact torpedo. MU 90 has a directed energy warhead and a range of 12,000m at maximum speed and 25,000m at minimum speed.


Aircraft landing deck of the European vessels
The frigate has an aft helicopter hangar and a helicopter deck of approximately 520m². The frigate is fitted with an emergency communication and remote briefing system with the ship's helicopter. The AVT frigates will be fitted for a tactical unmanned air vehicle (TUAV). The AVT FREMM will also have the capability to control long-endurance, medium and high-altitude (MALE and HALE) unmanned air vehicles launched from ground sites or from other platforms.

An azimuth thruster provides precision manoeuvring for quayside and harbour operations, station keeping and as a back-up emergency propulsion system.
 
#10
Ratings
0 39 0
Joined
Dec 26, 2014
Messages
349
Likes
41
Country
New Zealand
Location
New Zealand
The kolkata class and China type 52d destroyer look impressive and goes to show how the modern world has developed and these ships are getting more advanced with better defenses in the system. I noticed these two countries have not used laser like the navy in the USa have stated to do maybe, they get cheaper missiles and can afford the costs for it which is a good thing. I hope the ship is used to defend the country and not used for senseless war or just taking out anyone crossing the border and I like how it has detection design to detect who is coming and communicate with the ship.
 
#11

Combat Medic

SENIOR MEMBER
Ratings
9 876 0
Joined
Nov 28, 2014
Messages
1,525
Likes
875
Country
USA
Location
United Arab Emirates
The littoral combat ship (LCS) is the first of a new family of surface ships for the US Navy. The LCS is a fast, highly maneuverable, networked surface combat ship

Variants

The Freedom class and the Independence class are the first two LCS variants.


Freedom-class



Class overview
Builders: Lockheed Martin
Operators: United States Navy
Preceded by: None
Cost: $670.4 million
Built: 2005–
In commission: 2008–
Building: 4
Planned: 5
Completed: 2
Active: 2
General characteristics
Type: Littoral combat ship
Displacement: 3,000 t (3,000 t) (full load)
Length: 378 ft (115 m)
Beam: 57.4 ft (17.5 m)
Draft: 12.8 ft (3.9 m)
Installed power: Electrical: 4 Isotta Fraschini V1708 diesel engines, Hitzinger generator units, 800 kW each
Propulsion: 2 Rolls-Royce MT30 36 MW gas turbines, 2 Colt-Pielstick diesel engines, 4 Rolls-Royce waterjets
Speed: 47 knots (87 km/h; 54 mph)
Range: 3,500 nmi (6,500 km; 4,000 mi) at 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph)
Endurance: 21 days (336 hours)
Boats & landing
craft carried: 11 m (36 ft) RHIB, 40 ft (12 m) high-speed boats
Complement: 50 core crew, 65 with mission crew (Blue and Gold crews)
Sensors and
processing systems: EADS North America TRS-3D air and surface search radar
Lockheed Martin COMBATSS-21 combat management system
AN/SQR-20 Multi-Function Towed Array (As part of ASW mission module)
Electronic warfare
& decoys: Argon ST WBR-2000 ESM system
Terma A/S SKWS decoy system
Armament: 1 × BAE Systems Mk 110 57 mm gun, 400 rounds in turret and two ready service magazines with 240 rounds each.
One Mk 49 launcher with 21 × RIM-116 Rolling Airframe MissileSurface-to-Air Missiles
4 × .50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns
2 × 30 mm Mk44 Bushmaster IIguns (part of SUW module)
24 × AGM-114L Hellfire missiles (planned part of SUW module)

Other weapons as part of mission modules
Aircraft carried: 1 × MH-60R/S Seahawk
2 × MQ-8B Fire Scouts or 1 × MQ-8C Fire Scout


Freedom in Feb 2013 showing her large helideck & the RAM launcher on the hangar.




An MH-60 Seahawk helicopter approaching USS Freedom
 
#12

Combat Medic

SENIOR MEMBER
Ratings
9 876 0
Joined
Nov 28, 2014
Messages
1,525
Likes
875
Country
USA
Location
United Arab Emirates
Independence-class littoral combat ship




Class overview
Builders: Austal USA
Operators:
United States Navy
Cost: $704 million First Ship[1] Future Ships $360 million
Building: 2
Planned: 12
Completed: 2
Active: 1 with 1 being fitted out
General characteristics
Type: Littoral combat ship
Displacement: 2,307 metric tons light, 3,104 metric tons full, 797 metric tons deadweight[2]
Length: 127.4 m (418 ft)[2]
Beam: 31.6 m (104 ft)[2]
Draft: 14 ft (4.27 m)[2]
Propulsion: 2× MTU Friedrichshafen 20V 8000 Series diesel engines, 2x General Electric LM2500 gas turbines,[3] 2x American VULKAN light weight multiple-section carbon fiber propulsion shaftlines, 2x LJ160E and 2x LJ150E Wärtsilä waterjets,[4]retractable bow-mounted azimuth thruster, 4× diesel generators
Speed: 44 knots (51 mph; 81 km/h)[5]
Range: 4,300 nm at 18 knots[6]
Capacity: 210 metric tons (206 long tons, 231 short tons)
Complement: 40 core crew (8 officers, 32 enlisted) plus up to 35 mission crew
Sensors and
processing systems:

Electronic warfare
& decoys:
Armament:
Aircraft carried:
 
#13

Combat Medic

SENIOR MEMBER
Ratings
9 876 0
Joined
Nov 28, 2014
Messages
1,525
Likes
875
Country
USA
Location
United Arab Emirates


 
#14

Combat Medic

SENIOR MEMBER
Ratings
9 876 0
Joined
Nov 28, 2014
Messages
1,525
Likes
875
Country
USA
Location
United Arab Emirates
Horizon class destroyers of French and Italian Navy



The Horizon/Orrizonte class destroyers is a class of four hich-tech stealth Anti-Air Warfare (AAW) ships which were commissioned the period 2008-2009 in French Navy (Marine Nationale) and Italian Navy (Marina Militare Italiana). Two ships were built for each navy, under a multi-national collaboration between the two countries, the Horizon SAS. HorizonSAS was atemporaryconsortiumof companiesbetween Italy and France(50%Italy-50% France)provided by Orrizonte Sistemi Navali (joint venture between Fincantieri and Finmeccanica) andArmaris(joint venture between DCNandThales). The project originally included also the United Kingdom however due to differing requirements from the Royal Navy for a heavier ship that can provide air defence to a fleet that operates in hostile waters, the United Kingdom proceeded alone to develop the Type 45 destroyer instead. The main differences in the requirements were in the Vertical Launching System (VLS) and the scanned array radar. Though four units were planned for each navy, only 2 were built for each one. The French vessels, Forbin and ChevalierPaul, replaced the two AAW vessels of Suffren class while the Italian vessels, AndreaDoria and Caio Duilio, replaced the two AAW vessels of Audace class. The armament and equipment are almost identical between the vessels in service with France and Italy. The class carries a variety of weapons and electronic equipment and it is capable for any kind of mission. Great emphasis was given on the stealth performance and thus tilted superstructures, composite materials and special coatings contribute to a very small radar signature.




The general characteristics of the class is a displacement of 7,050tons, length of 153m, beam of 20.3m, maximum speed of close to 30knots and a range of over 7,000n.m. with a cruising speed of 18knots. The ship has a crew of 180-200 persons, an additional capacity for at least 30-50 passengers or admiral staff. The endurance of the vessels is 45 days at sea between replenishments . Each vessel can accommodate an NH90 or EH101 ASW helicopters and/or UAVs. The propulsion is of the CODOG (Combined Diesel or Gas).


The ships are equipped with two fully automatic OTO Melara Super Rapido guns of 76mm/62cal guns installed as a pair on the foredeck forward of the bridge. This gun is capable to intercept air and surface targets at a distance of 16 km unleashing 120 rounds per minute weighting greater than 6kg each. The gun has excellent performance in any kind of role, such as air defence, anti surface, anti-missile and shore bombardment role. The Italian vessels have an additional third gun installed on the helicopter hangar at the aft of the ship. Instead, the French vessels were initially to be equipped with one or two Mistral 2Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAM) automatic launchers (remotely controlled) either Sadral with 6 missiles or Tetral with 4 missiles, on the starboard roof of the helicopter hangar. Until today French vessels have not been equipped with the launcher but they retain the provision for one such launcher in the future. Mistral 2 is a lightweight, fully digital and autonomous (fire-and-forget), heat-seeking missile, with a passive IR homing guidance by a highly sensitive cooled multicell seeker (seeker activation time: two seconds). The speed is Mach 2.5, the warhead is 2.95kg while the accuracy of the missile is outstanding (96% kill efficiency rate demonstrated during user firings). The system is optimized to counter any air target at short notice. However until today the French ships have bot been installed with the launcher.


The 76mm guns of Forbin. Photo: Emmanuel L.

Forward of the two guns towards the bow deck, it is installed the main armament of the class, a DCNS Sylver A50 VLS with 48 cells (four VLS) for MBDA Aster 15anti-aircraft/missile missiles for local and area defence (medium range) and Aster 30 missiles that provide long range interception capability for area defence (see the video for Sylver VLS). According to some sources the space located forwards of the silos allows for 16 more missiles in the future. Both Aster 15 and 30 missiles featuring the same terminal dart. The Aster missiles are autonomously guided with a maximum range of greater than 30km for Aster 15 and a speed of higher than Mach 3 and a range of 100-120km and Mach 4.5 for Aster 30 that has two-stage propulsion system . The missile provides protection to the vessel against a full spectrum of air threats such as anti-shipping missile including sea-skimming and high diver missiles, supersonic and subsonic missiles, anti-radiation missiles UAV and aircrafts (see video) with a very high single shot probability. ASTER’s terminal dart is a lightweight, highly manoeuvring and agile missile equipped with a high-performance active RF seeker with capability against stealthy targets. Thanks to the unique combination of aerodynamic control and direct thrust vector control called “PIF-PAF, the missile is capable of high g manoeuvres. Together, these features give ASTER an unmatched hit-to-kill capability. The system has an extremely quick reaction time with high rate of fire and it provides full coverage under any kind of weather.





Sylver A50 Vertical Launching System. Notice the mountings
for M2 12.7mm heavy machine guns on the bow deck.


Forward of the two guns towards the bow deck, it is installed the main armament of the class, a DCNS Sylver A50 VLS with 48 cells (four VLS) for MBDA Aster 15anti-aircraft/missile missiles for local and area defence (medium range) and Aster 30 missiles that provide long range interception capability for area defence (see the video for Sylver VLS). According to some sources the space located forwards of the silos allows for 16 more missiles in the future. Both Aster 15 and 30 missiles featuring the same terminal dart. The Aster missiles are autonomously guided with a maximum range of greater than 30km for Aster 15 and a speed of higher than Mach 3 and a range of 100-120km and Mach 4.5 for Aster 30 that has two-stage propulsion system . The missile provides protection to the vessel against a full spectrum of air threats such as anti-shipping missile including sea-skimming and high diver missiles, supersonic and subsonic missiles, anti-radiation missiles UAV and aircrafts (see video) with a very high single shot probability. ASTER’s terminal dart is a lightweight, highly manoeuvring and agile missile equipped with a high-performance active RF seeker with capability against stealthy targets. Thanks to the unique combination of aerodynamic control and direct thrust vector control called “PIF-PAF, the missile is capable of high g manoeuvres. Together, these features give ASTER an unmatched hit-to-kill capability. The system has an extremely quick reaction time with high rate of fire and it provides full coverage under any kind of weather.




The ships carry also eight (8) anti-shipping missiles between the ship's two masts. The French ships carry the MBDA MM-40 Exocet Block III guided anti-ship missiles with a range of more than 180km carrying a warhead of 164kg. The missile accepts also GPS guidance system waypoint commands which allow it to attack naval targets under different angles and to strike land targets as well. The missile guidance is inertial in mid-flight until turns on active radar late in its flight (active guidance) to the corresponding trigger point for the detection and locking of its target. In order to minimize the recognition from rival radar and infrared seekers and the subsequent attack of the projectile from the air defense around the target, the system maintains a very low altitude during ingress, staying 1–2 m above the sea surface (sea-skimming) striking the target near the waterline. Due to the effect of the radar horizon and to the high speed of the missile (Mach 0.9), the target may not detect an incoming attack until the missile is only 6,000m from impact and thus it leaves little time for reaction of the target’s CIWS. The missile has low signature and it has enhanced target discrimination and ECCM making it very difficult to be intercepted.


Exocet missiles onboard a French vessel of the class


The Italian ships carry the MBDA Otomat/Teseo Mk2A guided anti-shipping missile, which has a range of up to 180km, a high subsonic speed Mach 0.9 and carries a warhead of 210kg capable piercing up to 80mm of steel. The warhead is designed to explode inside the ship with the force of the explosion directed to the bottom of the target ship. Capable of ranges from 6-180km in all directions, the system relies on powerful mission planning (3D way-points, terminal sea skimming profile, simultaneous attack from different directions). Target data is derived from the ship's Command System or taken directly from the ship's surface search radar. Mission Planning allows the selection of different firing modes (such as Fire and Forget or midcourse guided) and of specific trajectories and evasive manoeuvres. Cruise and approach phases may be either fully inertial or partially guided from the launch ship through a radio-link. Mid course re-vectoring from a co-operating ship or helicopter is also possible. The excellent capabilities of the missile (short reaction time, Fire and Forget, INS/GPS navigation, high target selection, ECCM and anti-CIWS manoeuvres, warhead lethality with no collateral damage) allow the system to operate effectively in littoral warfare environments, as well as in blue waters. The terminal attack phase is based upon an autonomous terminal guidance using an active homing head with improved target selection capabilities in complex scenarios. It should be mentioned that Otomat is one of the most powerful of all modern western anti-ship missiles having a mid course data-link and land attack capability.


Otomat/Teseo Mk2 anti-shipping missile



For anti-submarine warfare (ASW) operations the vessels have two twin (French ships) or two single (Italian ships) Eurotorp B515 324mm torpedo launchers for MU90/Impact torpedoes with Calzoni AHS (Automatic Handling System). The ships carry in total 24 torpedoes. MU90 is a lightweight torpedo with a warhead of 32.7kg, a speed from 29 to maximum 50 knots (!), around 10km with maximum speed and 23km with minimum speed. The maximum depth is 1,000m. The torpedo, is of fire-and-forget type and it has been designed to counter any type of nuclear or conventional submarine, acoustically coated, deep and fast-evasive, deploying active or passive anti-torpedo effectors while it has an extreme agility and maneuverability. In the main counter-counter measures are included stationary target detection capability, decoy classification and anti-jammer tactics. The torpedo equips also the NH90 and AW101 Merlin helicopters for ASW operations.


Torpedo launcher and MU90 torpedo. The 2nd launcher
has not been fitted.

The French ships are armed with two 20mm/90cal modele F2 guns installed to port and to starboard. This gun has a firing rate of approximately 750 rounds per minute while the effective range against aerial targets is about 1,500-2,000m. The gun has two 150-cartridge boxes on each side of it. The gun is maneuvered by the body of the gunner, who is attached to the weapon directing the fire via an optical visor. The Italian ships have two OTO Melara Oerlikon KBA 25mm/80cal guns which are also installed one to port and one to starboard. The guns are stabilized, electric servo-drive assisted, while a weapon control is featured in order to allow the gunner to remain steady at any barrel elevation, laying the gun with the maximum accuracy even against targets at maximum elevation. A conventional aiming system is fitted to the mount, but also an IR sight with integrated ballistic reticule is available. The rate of fire is about 650 rounds per minute and the effective range for aerial targets is about 2,000m. The gun has two 126-round boxes on each side of it.


OTO Melara 25mm gun

As it was mentioned earlier, the vessels carry NH90 or AW101 helicopters. Both types can carry either MU-90 torpedoes (see previous paragraph about MU90) or MBDA Marte Mk2 anti-shipping missiles. Marte is a lightweight, fire-and-forget all weather subsonic and sea-skimming missile suitable for littoral environments. It carries a 70kg semi-piercing warhead detonated by impact or proximity. The range of the missile is up to 30km.


2omm modele F2 gun


AW101with Marte Mk2 anti-shipping missile


MBDA Marte Mk2 anti-shipping missile


NH90 armed with a MU90 torpedo

The countermeasures include the DCNS CONTRALTO-V Torpedo Countermeasures system (or else known as SLAT system) for surface vessels. CONTRALTO®-V is composed of several subsystems for an optimized defense against torpedoes: the reaction system, which calculates & suggests optimized evasive manoeuvres and sets off the countermeasures, the deployment system (launcher) fitted to several types of launchers (mortar, pneumatic, rocket) and the CANTO®-V countermeasure. CANTO®-V is a broadband active acoustic countermeasure. It is designed to saturate the torpedo data processing system by emitting specific and smart acoustic signals covering the whole torpedo frequency band in both active and passive mode. Its mission consists in exhausting the threat by creating and constantly renewing hundreds of false targets on a 360-degree coverage area (5 sec deployment). This concept, called dilution/confusion, is the only one capable of defeating advanced torpedoes while consuming less munitions and it is efficient whatever the number of torpedoes or their types and doesn’t need to be deployed far from the threatened ship. The system offers a 95% escape probability against torpedoes detected at 3,000 meters. Watch the video to realize how the system works.



NGDS decoy launcher.
Photo: Dominique Lenoir

The French vessels are equipped with two Sagem NGDS (New-Generation Dagaie System) multiple decoy launchers to counter a variety of threats such as anti-ship missiles and torpedoes. NGDS is integrated in the ship's combat system's detection and warning system and can react automatically to current or emerging threats, in extremely short times. Each system is equipped with a single dual launcher including decoys (infrared, radar or acoustic) adapted to the threat to be neutralized. The NGDS system adapts to all types of munitions: electromagnetic or IR decoys, Active Offboard Decoy (AOD), Anti-Torpedo Decoy and/or laser jammer, deployed at short, medium or long range. The launchers are linked to a computer that selects the decoying best-suited technique. The Electronic Warfare Coordination Center provides the commanding officer with the ship’s tactical situation and coordinates the various Electronic Warfare (EW) tactics: threat evaluation, tactics optimization, coordination of decoys, radar jammer and more generally, electronic countermeasures Electronic Support Measures (ESM). Instead, the Italian ships are equipped with two OTO Melara/Selex SCLAR-H decoy launchers for 105mm or 118mm multipurpose rockets.


SCLAR-H decoy launcher.


The vessels carry also two Zodiac Hurricane 733 RIBs for high speed assault/commando operations. The boats have a maximum speed of about 50knots.


Hurrican 733 RIB on Forbin. Photo: Dominique Lenoir
 
#15

Combat Medic

SENIOR MEMBER
Ratings
9 876 0
Joined
Nov 28, 2014
Messages
1,525
Likes
875
Country
USA
Location
United Arab Emirates
The electronic equipment includes the S1850M long range surveillance 3D radar at the top of the aft mast, a derivative of Thales SMART-L. SMART-L is a 3D multibeam radar designed to provide long-range air & surface surveillance and target designation. SMART-L’s large sensitivity allows for the early detection and tracking of very small aircraft and missiles. The accurate 3D target information provides an essential contribution to the threat evaluation process, especially in multiple attack scenarios and it allows the weapon control system to lock-on rapidly. Operating in L-band, SMART-L provides a very long-range coverage (400 km radius, 65km for stealth missiles) as well as 70° of elevation. The detection range is 2 km against RHIB and 7 km against FPB. SMART-L's high sensitivity allows for the early detection and tracking of very small aircraft and missiles. Full Doppler processing for instantaneous radial velocity measurement and clutter suppression, combined with refined signal processing, guarantees excellent performance, especially against stealth targets in a littoral environment. The Smart-L / S1850M is the de facto standard of the major European navies for their long-range 3D radar requirements and foreseen as one of the pillars in the NATO TBMD. Recent tests with SMART-L equipped with the recently developed Extended Long Range module were highly successful. Thanks to the ELR module, SMART-L's already impressive range can be substantially increased.





In front of the main mast the navigation radars (one SPN 753 in light green and
two FURUNO radars in blue). At the right of Syracuse satellite system another
SPN 753 radar. At the top of the mast the EMPAR radar while immediately
below the RTN-30X radar.


At the top of the forward mast in a large round radome it is mounted the multi-function phased array radar, EMPAR (European Multi-function Phased Array Radar) which provides simultaneous surveillance, tracking and weapons control. EMPAR is the primary sensor in the FSAF/SAAM-IT and PAAMS missile systems. It operates at C-band, performing concurrently 3D detection, multiple target tracking and missile guidance. It counters different threats such as high diving and sea skimming missiles, aircraft and helicopters and any kind of vessels. The maximum range of the radar is about 150km.


The Italian vessels are equipped with an X-band multi-mode surveillance radar Selex RAN-30X (SPS-791). RAN-30 X/I features up to four operational roles: Surface and Air Surveillance mode (detection and tracking of small air/surface targets; max. range 102km); Navigation and Helicopter control (high antenna rotation speed for navigation close to the coastline; max. range 41km); Over-the-Horizon (OTH) detection (low antenna rotation speed and long range detection capability; max. range 200km); Anti-seaskimmer missile detection (max. rage 25km). This mode has an high antenna rotation rate to ensure the detection and tracking of very small targets manoeuvring in clutter environment and featuring very low Radar Cross Section (R. C. S.). It is an automatic detection/tracker radar that can carry up to 255 system tracks (air and surface).


Selex RAN-30X surveillance radar

The Italian ships are equipped with two Selex NA-25X Radar and Optronic Fire Control Systems (FCS). NA-25X is a modern fire control system based on the ORION RTN-25X tracking naval radar, a J-band fully coherent equipment which is characterised by anti-nodding, extensive ECCM and anti-clutter features together with high tracking accuracy. A set of two EO sensors (TV camera, IR camera) can be mounted on the radar director, to enable firing assessment and to provide an alternative line-of-sight on the same target. A third sensor (Laser Range Finder) can be mounted to provide a complete EO tracker facility. NA-25X can be provided with a dedicated multifunctional console or controlled by any console of the Combat Management System (CMS). The FCS can be easily integrated in every CMS and completely remote accessible. A couple of Targets Designation Sight (TDS) enhance the FCS configuration. Through an internal additional function, NA-25X system can be integrated inside an Artillery System (including at least two FCSs), to optimize the use of all onboard guns against multiple concurrent targets (missiles, air and surface targets). The system perfomrs the following tasks: radar and optronic autonomous search with automatic/manual self-designation, surveillance and self designation on ship's search radar video, automatic engagement of evaluated priority target up to firing action, automatic air/missile/shore and surface targets tracking, automatic detection of launched missile, control of up to three guns with different calibres in the anti-air/anti-surface warfare and CIWS roles, line-of-sight/line-of-fire stabilization and Track While Scan (TWS) on external naval data. The French ships are equipped with a single monopulse Selex ORION RTN-30X (NA-30S)automatic target acquisition tracker/multi-sensor, a more powerful tracker version than the RTN-25X.


Selex NA-25X fire control system


Sagem Vampir NG is a very long-range infrared search/track system (dual mode IRST). It provides naval ships with passive panoramic surveillance functions including automatic detection, tracking and reporting of symmetric or asymmetric threats, from sea-skimming anti-ship missiles to Fast Incoming Attack Craft such as jet skis. It is very sensitive system using the ultra-rapid “step-and-stare” principle enabling 360° coverage with a single high-performance, 3rd generation 3-5 μm IR camera. The high-resolution, 3-axis stabilized video enhances the advanced identification capabilities. It is backed by an image processing system offering optimal performance, even in rough seas. Vampir equips the vessels of the class in the MB version. The ECM equipment of the class is very advanced offering a range of high fidelity jamming techniques designed to counter long range search radars, target acquisition radars and missile radars operating in both their search and locked-on modes. It includes a Thales VIGILE ESM/ELINT system, a Thales TSB 3520 ATC & IFF Combined Interrogator Transponder two Electtronica ESM/ECM SIGEN systems combining Thales ESM sensors and Electtronica NETTUNO 4100 electronic jammers for active electronic defence. The NETTUNO-4100 can exploit a wide range of ECM techniques against surface search and tracking radars in support of anti- surface engagements. Some of the characteristics of these jammers (according to the company) include a very high performance, smart ECM modes, both noise and deception, exploiting DRFM-generated jamming signals, multi-threat jamming capability, electronic beam steering (electronically stabilized against ship movements), high level of readiness (no warm-up), full solid-state design ensuring high ERP and graceful degradation in case of failure and high reliability and maintainability.


The powerful aft jammer of Forbin.



Variety of navigation radars on Forbin.



Detail of the Forbin. The faceted
appearance reduces radar cross
-section for stealth


Helicopter hangar and flight deck


24 MU90 torpedoes are carried.
Photo: Dominique Lenoir


The ships are equipped with a Thales UMS 4110 CL low frequency active and passive Bow Mounted Sonar. The hull mounted sonar covers a very large area providing ASW all-round surveillance as it can detect any kind of threat or object from a long range in any environmental condition. It has an excellent target positioning allowing to prosecute and engage distant submarines with organic weapons or airborne assets. The electronic equipment completes two GEM SPN-753G (V) 10 ARPA navigation radars (auto-tracking up to 50 targets), one GEM SPN-753G (V) 10 for helicopter approach control, a Selex SPN-730 Low Probabily Intercept (LPI) Navigation Radar and Precision Approach Radar (PAR) (on the Italian vessels according to Fincantieri), one IFF Selex ES IFF SIR M5-PA, a Secondary Surveillance Radar Selex SIR R/S (the Italian vessels according to Fincantieri) and two FURUNO navigation radars (French ships).




The communications include a variety of equipment and differs between the two navies. Thales ALTESSE is a high performance wideband for Communication ESM providing early warning and tactical situation awareness capabilities based on interception and direction finding of the radio communication signals in HF and V/UHF band, that can be easily integrated with Combat Management System. The TMR6200 are receiver-exciters that use digital signal processing technology to offer cost-effective and highly flexible radios for HF naval communications systems. They can be operated independently as a standalone radio via the control panel or within an integrated naval communications system offering voice, data, messaging and e-mail services. The Thales TUUM-6 Digital Under Water Communication System offering Long range Low Probably Intercept (LPI) data transmission, high data rate transmission and communication with divers. Other equipment includes Link 11, Link 16, satellite and commercial communications such as Syracuse antennas for the French vessels (SURFSAT-L terminal), the Thales TRN 4000 Fixed Frequency UHF Transceiver and the Thales PARTNER Communication Management System to cope with crew reduction and a friendly use of the communications. The Italian vessels include in their equipment a Selex-SI integrated navigation system and a NICCO Integrate communications system. The command and control system is built by EuroSysNav and it is based on the SENIT (Système d'Exploitation Navale des Informations Tactiques) combat data system.



 
Top