Fighter Aircrafts

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Eurofighter Typhoon delivers an enviable level of flexibility and efficiency. Only Eurofighter Typhoon possesses both adequate weapon availability (up to 6 bombs whilst also carrying six missiles, a cannon and a targeting pod) and sufficient processing power to simultaneously support missile in-flight updates and bomb in-flight targeting. True swing-role capability.


The aircraft is designed to be upgraded and extended to provide decades of effective use. Combining a proven, agile airframe built from stealth materials with the latest sensor, control and weapons systems delivers the optimum combat capability – both beyond visual range (BVR) and in close combat.

The weapons systems, navigation technologies and control infrastructure are all designed to be upgraded, to continue to enhance the overall performance of the aircraft.


THE AIRFRAME

The aircraft is built with advanced composite materials to deliver a low radar profile and strong airframe. Only 15% of the aircraft’s surface is metal, delivering stealth operation and protection from radar-based systems. Pilots were included in design from the earliest stages to develop a deliberately unstable airframe that can still be flown effectively. This delivers both superior manoeuvrability at subsonic speeds and efficient supersonic capability to support the widest range of combat scenarios.


EUROFIGHTER TYPHOON SPECIFICATIONS
Max Speed
MACH 2.0

Thrust
90kNfrom each of the two
eurojet ej200 turbojets

Length
15.96M

Max Altitude
ABOVE 55,000FT

Wingspan
10.95M

THE MATERIALS

Strong, lightweight composite materials were key to the design of Eurofighter Typhoon to give it deliberate instability. Using them means the weight of the airframe is 30% less than for traditional materials, boosting the range and performance as well as reducing the radar signature.

GENERAL MATERIALS
Carbon Fibre Composites
70%

Metals
15%

Glass Reinforced Plastics (GRP)
12%

Other Materials
3%

PRODUCTION

Eurofighter Typhoon foreplane
The innovative production techniques developed for Eurofighter Typhoon have created a whole new industry for the most effective use of advanced composite materials. These provide greater tensile strength and more aerodynamic performance with less weight and more reliability than traditional materials.


THE TWIN EUROJET ENGINES


The Eurojet EJ200 engine
Developing leading-edge engine technology has been a key part of the Eurofighter Typhoon project from the start. Four global companies have jointly developed the high performance EJ200 power plants that each provide 90kN of thrust from a small lightweight engine with high strength and high temperature capability.

The two-spool design with single-stage turbines drives the three-stage fan and five-stage HP compressor with annular combustion with vaporising burners. This allows Eurofighter Typhoon to cruise at supersonic speeds without the use of reheat for extended periods. The engines deliver 1,000 flying hours without needing unscheduled maintenance through the use of advanced integrated Health Monitoring for class-leading reliability, maintainability and Through Life Cost.


DID YOU KNOW?
After a 1,400 hour flight simulation, the Eurojet engine produces the same operating performance as a brand new engine.


SENSORS


Sensor fusion is key to Eurofighter Typhoon's effective infrared sensor
Eurofighter Typhoon is at the forefront of sensor fusion technology and the sensor suite continues to be upgraded to deliver enhanced detection and decision-making. Combining the data from key sensors gives the pilot an autonomous ability to rapidly assess the overall tactical situation and respond efficiently to identified threats.

INFRARED SEARCH AND TRACK (IRST)
The PIRATE infrared sensor provides passive Air-to-Air target detection and tracking performance in the IRST mode for covert tracking and Air-to-Surface operations in the Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) mode.

RADAR

The Captor-M mechanically scanned radar is a best-in-class radar, offering an extensive suite of modes to meet customers’ operational requirements, as well as providing a very competitive field of regard.

Captor-E is the future primary sensor on Eurofighter Typhoon and has a full suite of Air-to-Air and Air-to-Surface modes. The capacious front fuselage of the Eurofighter Typhoon allows the installation of Captor-E’s optimised array whose Field of Regard is some 50 per cent wider than traditional fixed plate systems.

This wide field of regard offers significant benefits in both Air-to-Air and Air-to-Surface engagements and given the large power and aperture available provides the pilot with much enhanced angular coverage compared to fixed plate systems.

AIR-TO-AIR FEATURES

  • Search Modes - Range While Search (RWS), Velocity Search (VS) and multiple target Track While Scan (TWS)
  • Lock-Follow Modes, which are tailored for long range tracking and short range tracking for use in visual identification or gun attacks
  • Air Combat Acquisition Modes allowing a choice of boresight, vertical scan HUD field of view or slaved acquisition
AIR-TO-SURFACE FEATURES

  • Search Modes - Ground Map, High Resolution Map, Ground Moving Target Identification and Sea Surface Search and Track While Scan
  • Track Modes - Fixed Target Track and Moving Target Track
  • Air-to-Surface Ranging
 
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THE COCKPIT



Inside The Eurofighter Typhoon cockpit

Throughout the design of the Eurofighter Typhoon, the needs of the single seat pilot have been paramount. This has meant high levels of attention to the control and information interfaces throughout the unique glass cockpit, from the head-up, head-down and head-out systems to all-round vision. High workload situations were analysed to establish information priorities and automate tasks.

The advanced cockpit design and layout is based on an extensive series of formal assessments in a rapid prototype facility, undertaken by operational pilots from air forces flying the Eurofighter Typhoon. Using and upgrading the advanced digital technology not only enhances operation and survivability, but also simplifies aircraft maintenance.

Other features such as Direct Voice Input (DVI) and Hands On Throttle And Stick (HOTAS) control functions have been implemented on the Eurofighter Typhoon to drastically reduce the pilot’s workload. Voice + Throttle And Stick (VTAS) enables single pilot operations even in the most demanding Air-to-Air, Air-to-Surface and swing-role missions.



HEAD UP DISPLAY (HUD)



Pilot wearing a helmet mounted symbology system (HMSS)

The Eurofighter Typhoon’s wide angle head up display (HUD) provides the pilot with stable, accurate, high integrity, low latency eyes-out guidance in a compact package. The fully digital HUD offers high performance that is compatible with night vision and laser protection goggles.

HEAD DOWN DISPLAY SYSTEMS (MHDD)
Three full colour multi-function head down displays (MHDD) are used for the overall tactical situation, presenting the attack situation, attack formats, map displays and air traffic procedures, in addition to system status and checklists.

HELMET MOUNTED SYMBOLOGY SYSTEM (HMSS)
Eurofighter Typhoon utilises a unique Helmet Mounted Symbology System (HMSS), alongside six other pilot display surfaces. HMSS provides flight reference and weapon data aiming through the visor. It is fully compatible with night vision aids using light intensification and Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) imagery. It offers pilots a significant competitive advantage.

The helmet is composed of an outer helmet, inner helmet, optics blast/display visor, oxygen mask, night vision enhancement camera and head position tracking system.



NAVIGATION SENSORS


Hands on throttle and stick (HOTAS) controls

The latest sensor technology supports automated and inherently covert operation down to 100ft. Eurofighter Typhoon’s navigation aids include a global positioning system (GPS) for full digital interface with individual satellite tracking channels and improved anti-jam capabilities. The package also includes an inertial navigation system with GPS. In addition, the navigation system features integrated lateral cueing and vertical commands, ensuring safe manoeuvre with 3D situational awareness.

FLIGHT CONTROL
The flight control system (FCS) is a full authority and quadruplex digital system which allows carefree handling and manoeuvring in all situations. Its intuitive operation is designed to enable the pilot to concentrate on the tactical tasks and to fly the aircraft 'head-up' in combination with the HOTAS (Hand-on-Throttle-and-Stick) concept applied to cockpit design. Automated Emergency recovery features have also been embodied in the system design to ensure maximum safety of operation.



MULTIFUNCTIONAL INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (MIDS)



The Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS)

The MIDS high capacity digital information distribution system allows secure exchange of real-time data between a wide variety of users, including all the components of a tactical air force and, where appropriate, land and naval forces.



DEFENSIVE AIDS SUB SYSTEM (DASS)
The DASS suite comprises wingtip Electronic Support Measures and Electronic Counter Measures pods (ESM/ECM), missile warners, chaff and flare dispenser and an optional laser warner.

Upgrades in computing power will support continuous protection from future threats, to enhance Eurofighter Typhoon’s survivability and greatly increase overall mission effectiveness.



Defensive Aids Sub System (DASS)



WEAPONS




Supporting multiple weapon configurations

As well as Short Range Air-to-Air Missiles (SRAAM’s) and the 27mm Mauser Canon the Eurofighter Typhoon carries the latest beyond-visual-range (BVR) Air-to-Air missile technology. Soon the METEOR advanced long-range missile will provide the largest No Escape Zone of any Air-to-Air weapon, resulting in a long stand-off range and high probability of interception to ensure air superiority and pilot survivability. Guidance is provided by an active radar seeker with mid-course updates via data link.

The Laser Designator Pod (LDP) enables precise location of targets and guidance of Air-to-Surface weapons.

Eurofighter Typhoon has also been upgraded with Paveway IV to provide high levels of operational flexibility. The combat proven dual-mode guidance system, coupled with height of burst and penetrating capability, enable the decision of target engagement to be made right up to the point of release.



Laser guided bomb being delivered

Eurofighter Typhoon will see the constant integration of new, smart weapons in accordance with the demands of current and future customers.

Storm Shadow, Taurus, Small Diametre Bombs, Brimstone, Anti-Shipping Missiles are just some of the upgrades planned.



Eurofighter Typhoon can remain on task for long periods of time with large, flexible weapons loads including METEOR, AMRAAM, ASRAAM or IRIS-T



Eurofighter Typhoon can carry a vast range of Air-to-Surface weapons, including the new Storm Shadow conventionally armed stand-off missile, the Brimstone anti-armour weapon and future Precision Guided Weapons


LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS


A fully equipped pilot before a flight

The Life Support System & Aircrew Equipment Assembly (AEA) is unique to Eurofighter Typhoon and includes full-cover anti-G trousers (FCAGT), a chest counter-pressure garment (CCPG) and a liquid conditioning garment, as well as nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) protection.

The helmet incorporates the latest Helmet Mounted Symbology System (HMSS) and optical protection. For pilot comfort and optimum performance capability, Eurofighter Typhoon uses computer controlled anti-G and breathing support technology.



EJECTION SEAT




The Mk 16A ejection seat on the Eurofighter Typhoon is 30% lighter than equivalent ejection seats. This is achieved by combining the twin ejection gun outer cylinder tubes as both the propulsion system and the seat’s primary structure. The narrow head box also contributes to Eurofighter Typhoon’s excellent rear vision.

The seat integrates an on-board oxygen generation system (OBOGS) and communication systems. The simplified combined harness allows unassisted strap-in, and the passive leg restraint system avoids the need for the pilot to wear restraining garters. A second generation electronic sequencer is also incorporated. Reliability and maintainability are key elements of the design, with full access to in-cockpit components.



COCKPIT ACCESS


A pilot entering the Eurofighter Typhoon cockpit

Normal access to the cockpit is through either a telescopic integral ladder or an external version. The integral ladder is stowed in the port side of the fuselage below the cockpit.




FUEL SYSTEM


Fuel system - Forward transfer tank

Throughout the aircraft flexible couplings connect the fuel pipework built into the three main fuselage sections and wings. These provide a simple method to connect the fuel tanks, which all have fuel-flow proportioners to maintain the centre of gravity alongside relief valves to maintain air and fuel pressures. The intelligent computer-controlled fuel system ensures long-range, flexibility and safety.
 
#3

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The Su-30MK is a two-seat highly-manoeuvrable fighter designed for air-superiority and strikes at ground and naval surface targets using a variety of guided and unguided ADO, with an option of supporting group actions.






Aircraft performance
Takeoff weight:
- normal (including rockets 2xR-27R1 + 2xR-73E, 5270 kg fuel), kg 24,900*
- maximum, kg 34,500
- max, kg 38,800
Maximum landing weight, kg 23,600
Max landing weight, kg 30,000
Maximum internal fuel, kg 9,640
Normal internal fuel, kg 5,270
Maximum ordnance, kg 8,000
Service ceiling (without external ordnance and stores), km 17.3
Maximum flight speed at sea level (without external ordnance and stores), km/h 1,350
Max Mach (without external ordnance and stores) 2.00 (1.9**)
G-limit (operational) 9
Maximum flight range (with rockets 2xR-27R1, 2xR-73E launched at half distance):
- at sea level, km 1,270
- at height, km 3,000
- with one refuelling (at 1.500 kg fuel remaining), km 5,200
- with two refuellings in flight, km 8,000
Maximum airborne time (pilot-dependent), hours 10
Takeoff run at normal takeoff weight, m 550
Landing run at normal landing weight (with braking parachute), m 750
Aeroplane dimensions:
- length, m 21.9
- wingspan, m 14.7
- height, m 6.4
Crew 2

In-flight refuelling system
Maximum flow rate (at entry pressure of 3.5 kg/cm 2), l/min 1,100

Power-plant
Number and type of engines 2 x AL-31F (2 x AL-31FP***)
Thrust in afterburner, kgf 12,500 -2 %

Avionics
1. Fire control system
1.1. Air-to-air fire control system
1.1.1. Search and track radar
1.1.2. IRST and laser rangefinder
1.1.2.1. Optical search and track station
1.1.2.2. Helmet-mounted target designator
1.1.3. Wide-angle HUD
1.1.4. IFF system interrogator
1.2. Air-to-surface fire control system
1.2.1. Coloured multi-purpose LCD indicators
1.2.2. Onboard digital computer
1.2.3. GPS satellite-based navigation system
1.2.4. Weapons control system
2. Aeroplane remote control system
3. IFF system transponder
4. Antenna feed system
5. Flight navigation system
5.1. Digital computer
5.2. Attitude and heading reference system
5.3. Short-range radiotechnical navigation system
5.4. GPS system
5.5. Autopilot system
5.6. Altitude and speed data processing and display system
5.7. Air data system
6. Electronic countermeasure equipment
6.1. Radar warning receiver with an expansion block
6.2. Chaff and heat flare dispenser
6.3. Radio jamming transmitter (in pod)
7. Communications system
7.1. VHF and UHF band communications transceiver
7.2. VHF and UHF band communications transceiver
7.3. SW band radio communications transceiver
8. Onboard automatic control system
8.1. Integrated onboard control and crew warning system
8.2. Flight information recording equipment
8.3. Onboard emergency situation warning equipment
9. Video recording system
9.1. Onboard video recorder
9.2. Forward vision video camera
9.3. Video controller
10. Aircraft responder
11. Telecommand homing system
12. Pod-type IRST and laser rangefinder

Limits
Aircraft limit:
- SLL, hours 3,000
- to first overhaul, hours 1,500
- service life, years 25
Engine and outboard accessory-gearbox life:
- to first overhaul, hours 500
- service life limit, hours 1,500

Armaments
1. Guns Onboard 30mm gun with 150 rds
2. Guided air-to-air missiles R-27R1(ER1) R-27T1(ET1) R-27P(EP) R-73E RVV-AYe
3. Guided air-to-surface missiles Kh-59ME Kh-31A, Kh-31P Kh-29T(TYe), Kh-29L
4. Guided bomb units KAB-500KR, KAB-500OD KAB-1500KR, KAB-1500L
5. Air bombs FAB-500T BETAB-500ShP ODAB-500PM OFAB-250-270 OFAB-100-120 P-50T Incendiary bombs
6. Cluster bombs RBK-500 SPBE-D
7. Unguided missiles S-8KOM, S-8OM, S-8BM S-13T, S-13OF S-25OFM-PU
8. External fuel tanks N/a
9. Suspension points 12
 
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Typhoon jet's export potential lifted by new 'E-Scan' radar



BAE Systems has landed a £365m contract to help deliver an advanced new radar for the Eurofighter Typhoon jet that will boost the aircraft’s export prospects.

The four nations in the Eurofighter project – the UK, Germany, Italy and Spain – on Wednesday signed a €1bn (£800m) agreement to develop and fit Captor E-Scan radar to the jets.

The new radar will increase the range at which Typhoon pilots can identify potential targets, as well as allowing them to scan a 200-degree field of vision, greater than rival fighters, giving them a tactical advantage.

The addition of the radar will take Typhoon’s capabilities ahead of other fourth-generation fighters such as France’s Rafale and Sweden’s Grippen, making it more attractive to export clients looking to upgrade their air forces.

BAE, which as systems integrator assembles Typhoons at its base in Warton, Lancashire, from sections built by its partners Airbus and Finmeccanica Alenia Aermacchi – will be one of the main beneficiaries of the deal.


The contract is also worth £320m to Finmeccanica and will sustain 500 jobs at the company’s Selex electronics business in Edinburgh.

Testing of the new system is due to start next year and E-Scan is expected to go into service in 2021. It can also be retrofitted to Tranche 2 and 3 Typhoons which have already delivered.


How the E-Scan can undertake a variety of tasks simultaneously

Defence analyst Howard Wheeldon said: “This is a long-awaited, long-delayed capability for Typhoon that gives it the real edge that it has sat there waiting to have – it really puts it at the forefront of capability and can no longer be considered lacking in any area.”

In December last year the Typhoon programme suffered a major blow when it failed to seal deal worth £6bn to sell 60 of the jets to the United Arab Emirates. Typhoon also lost out in 2012 when India opted to buy Dassault’s Rafale, an 126-aircraft order thought to be worth £13bn.

A spokesman for BAE – which owns 33pc of the Eurofighter consortium – called said: “E-Scan is a massive development in the Typhoon’s capability. It gives us a significant advantage in sales and marketing efforts abroad – lots of existing and potential customers have said they would like this radar.

"We would not want to comment on particular sales campaigns but there is a lot of opportunity with Qatar, Kuwait and Malaysia.”

Captor E-Scan is an active electronically scanned array (AESA) system that uses a matrix of transmitter and receiver modules to send and receive a large number of radar signals, which are “steered” electronically, rather than by physically moving a radar dish.


BAE staff fitting test E-Scan equipment to a Typhoon

The returns from these signals as they bounce back from targets are then analysed by software inside the jet to provide a very detailed radar picture.

The size of the Typhoon’s nose means that designers have been able to include a larger number of modules on E-Scan, increasing its ability to pick out targets, as well as leaving room to mechanically move it around, increasing its field of view.

AESA systems are able to carry out far more tasks simultaneously than older systems and have the advantage of being harder for targets to detect because they transmit on so many frequencies, making them harder to pick out from normal background noise.
 
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F-15SA (Saudi Arabia) Variant. Up to now, the F-15SA is the most advanced F-15 ever built. Here is a full information about the aircraft specification and armament.












F-15SA.png
F015SA1.png
F-15SA2.png




 
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F-15SA Differences from the F-15E

Engines: Boeing will equip the F-15SA with General Electric made F-110-Pratt&Whitney F100-PW-220 series engines. Besides technical and performance differences, the GE engine can immediately be recognized by its different jet exhaust nacelles.



Electronic Warfare: Instead of the TEWS used in the Strike Eagle, the F-15SA will feature a digital electronic warfare system (developed by BAE Systems), dubbed as DEWS. DEWS was developed by leveraging F-22 and F-35 EW program results and replaces 4 legacy systems of the Strike Eagle. It is fully digital (hence its name) and works in close integration with wideband RF systems, including the AN/APG-63(v)3 AESA radar, giving the jet a very sharp edge in the electronic warfare arena.

DEWS offers full quadrant detection and response control, containing aft receiving antennas on top of the tails, aft RF transmitters and antennas built in the tailbooms, forward RF transmitters and antennas built in the leading edge of the wing roots, forward receiving antennas built in the wingtips and a low band Rx knife antenna placed on the underbelly of the jet below the cockpit. DEWSincludes a digital RWR, digital jamming transmitter, ICS and an interference cancellation system. According to Boeing, the system will enables the F-15SA to jam enemy radars while its own radar and RWR continues to operate.

Radar: It is arguably the most important difference between the F-15E and F-15SA models. The F-15SA will be equipped with the APG-63(V)3 radar, the newest of the ultramodern AESA line developed by Raytheon.


Cockpit: Not much is known about cockpit differences. It's certain that Boeing will integrate the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) into the system. The cockpit interior lighting will be compatible with night vision goggles (NVG'S). Together with the JHMCS capability, display system will be compatible with AIM 9x Sidewinder and AIM-120C AMRAAM air-to-air missiles.


Sensors: The F-15SA will use the top-notch Sniper XR targeting pod. The targeting pod will be attached under a new 3rd generation FLIR sensor which Boeing calls as ''Tiger Eyes''. This pod will give the F-15SA IRST capabilities in air-to-air engagements. Note that ''Tiger Eyes'' is also in service with the F-15K Slam Eagle version, as it is seen on the image below.


Communication: Not really a difference, since the Strike Eagle is also capable to carry, but the F-15SA will be equipped with the Fighter Data Link.



Recce Pod: The F-15SA will use Goodrich's DB-110 reconnaissance pod. This is a digital, real-time, tactical reconnaissance system designed to capture images in day or night, using electro-optical sensor technology. The pod can transmit images via datalink to the ground in real time. The DB-110 can be operated autonomously, by the pod's reconnaissance management system. Imagery is viewed on the F-15SA's cockpit video display, enabling the pilot to verify targets and conduct tasks such as battle damage assessment. This system allows the pilot increased flexibility over current fielded systems.




Weapons: The F-15SA will be compatible with Paveway III LGB's and with the "J-series" range of weapons. It will carry the AGM-84 Block II HARPOON anti-ship missile.
 
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ADVANCED RADAR WILL KEEP EUROFIGHTER TYPHOON AHEAD OF THE GAME



Eurofighter Typhoon one of the most advanced radar systems in the world providing a wider field of regard than any other combat aircraft. Other benefits include increased detection and tracking ranges, advanced air-to-surface capability and enhanced electronic protection measures.

An upgraded BAE Systems Eurofighter Typhoon development aircraft has already undergone a series of modifications as part of ongoing Captor E-Scan development. The aircraft flew for the first time with Captor E-Scan fitted in July this year and will continue both ground testing and flight trials.

Martin Taylor, Managing Director, Combat Air at BAE Systems said: “This is a major step forward in the development of Typhoon. From the outset, the aircraft was built with capability enhancement in mind and this step is proof that we are developing Typhoon to keep it relevant for today and for the future. Typhoon has become the backbone of a number of air forces and with the potential for further development it will be meeting the needs of modern warfare for decades to come.”

Eurofighter Typhoon is already regarded as one of the world’s leading swing-role combat aircraft and the addition of Captor E-Scan radar will further enhance its capabilities and desirability in the International market.

BAE Systems will now work with its Eurofighter partners to achieve the in-service requirements of each Typhoon customer. This will include retro-fitting to existing Tranche 2 and Tranche 3 aircraft where required.

Ref: 244/2014



BAE Systems - Eurofighter Typhoon Captor E-Scan AESA Radar Simulation


Advanced radar will keep Eurofighter Typhoon ahead of the game - BAE Systems
 
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The F-15 is probably one of the most gorgeous and sturdy Aircraft made, these are some really impressive upgrades to an already highly versatile fighter. Here's a small video I could find of one flying. Having seen many F-15s at Airshows, videos never do them justice.
 
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TatsuKaji

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Jaw droppingly beautiful aircraft. I didn't know they had made another variation, this is some great information. The Su has to be one of my favorite Russian aircraft. I found this video of a SU-30 demo.

 
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Eurofighter demo/airshow video clip.
 
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Eurofighter Typhoon delivers an enviable level of flexibility and efficiency. Only Eurofighter Typhoon possesses both adequate weapon availability (up to 6 bombs whilst also carrying six missiles, a cannon and a targeting pod) and sufficient processing power to simultaneously support missile in-flight updates and bomb in-flight targeting. True swing-role capability.


The aircraft is designed to be upgraded and extended to provide decades of effective use. Combining a proven, agile airframe built from stealth materials with the latest sensor, control and weapons systems delivers the optimum combat capability – both beyond visual range (BVR) and in close combat.

The weapons systems, navigation technologies and control infrastructure are all designed to be upgraded, to continue to enhance the overall performance of the aircraft.


THE AIRFRAME

The aircraft is built with advanced composite materials to deliver a low radar profile and strong airframe. Only 15% of the aircraft’s surface is metal, delivering stealth operation and protection from radar-based systems. Pilots were included in design from the earliest stages to develop a deliberately unstable airframe that can still be flown effectively. This delivers both superior manoeuvrability at subsonic speeds and efficient supersonic capability to support the widest range of combat scenarios.


EUROFIGHTER TYPHOON SPECIFICATIONS
Max Speed
MACH 2.0

Thrust
90kNfrom each of the two
eurojet ej200 turbojets

Length
15.96M

Max Altitude
ABOVE 55,000FT

Wingspan
10.95M

THE MATERIALS

Strong, lightweight composite materials were key to the design of Eurofighter Typhoon to give it deliberate instability. Using them means the weight of the airframe is 30% less than for traditional materials, boosting the range and performance as well as reducing the radar signature.

GENERAL MATERIALS
Carbon Fibre Composites
70%

Metals
15%

Glass Reinforced Plastics (GRP)
12%

Other Materials
3%

PRODUCTION

Eurofighter Typhoon foreplane
The innovative production techniques developed for Eurofighter Typhoon have created a whole new industry for the most effective use of advanced composite materials. These provide greater tensile strength and more aerodynamic performance with less weight and more reliability than traditional materials.


THE TWIN EUROJET ENGINES


The Eurojet EJ200 engine
Developing leading-edge engine technology has been a key part of the Eurofighter Typhoon project from the start. Four global companies have jointly developed the high performance EJ200 power plants that each provide 90kN of thrust from a small lightweight engine with high strength and high temperature capability.

The two-spool design with single-stage turbines drives the three-stage fan and five-stage HP compressor with annular combustion with vaporising burners. This allows Eurofighter Typhoon to cruise at supersonic speeds without the use of reheat for extended periods. The engines deliver 1,000 flying hours without needing unscheduled maintenance through the use of advanced integrated Health Monitoring for class-leading reliability, maintainability and Through Life Cost.


DID YOU KNOW?
After a 1,400 hour flight simulation, the Eurojet engine produces the same operating performance as a brand new engine.


SENSORS


Sensor fusion is key to Eurofighter Typhoon's effective infrared sensor
Eurofighter Typhoon is at the forefront of sensor fusion technology and the sensor suite continues to be upgraded to deliver enhanced detection and decision-making. Combining the data from key sensors gives the pilot an autonomous ability to rapidly assess the overall tactical situation and respond efficiently to identified threats.

INFRARED SEARCH AND TRACK (IRST)
The PIRATE infrared sensor provides passive Air-to-Air target detection and tracking performance in the IRST mode for covert tracking and Air-to-Surface operations in the Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) mode.

RADAR

The Captor-M mechanically scanned radar is a best-in-class radar, offering an extensive suite of modes to meet customers’ operational requirements, as well as providing a very competitive field of regard.

Captor-E is the future primary sensor on Eurofighter Typhoon and has a full suite of Air-to-Air and Air-to-Surface modes. The capacious front fuselage of the Eurofighter Typhoon allows the installation of Captor-E’s optimised array whose Field of Regard is some 50 per cent wider than traditional fixed plate systems.

This wide field of regard offers significant benefits in both Air-to-Air and Air-to-Surface engagements and given the large power and aperture available provides the pilot with much enhanced angular coverage compared to fixed plate systems.

AIR-TO-AIR FEATURES

  • Search Modes - Range While Search (RWS), Velocity Search (VS) and multiple target Track While Scan (TWS)
  • Lock-Follow Modes, which are tailored for long range tracking and short range tracking for use in visual identification or gun attacks
  • Air Combat Acquisition Modes allowing a choice of boresight, vertical scan HUD field of view or slaved acquisition
AIR-TO-SURFACE FEATURES

  • Search Modes - Ground Map, High Resolution Map, Ground Moving Target Identification and Sea Surface Search and Track While Scan
  • Track Modes - Fixed Target Track and Moving Target Track
  • Air-to-Surface Ranging



i wonder how many countries in the world today already have this weapon and aircraft
 
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Looks like a very impressive work of engineering. Any body know how this compares to the United States fighter planes.
 
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An epic machine. Looks extremely aggressive and yet is loaded with technology.
 
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An F-22 flies over Andrews Air Force Base (AFB)


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The Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor is a single-seat, twin-engine, all weather stealth tactical fighter aircraft developed for the United States Air Force (USAF). The result of the USAF's Advanced Tactical Fighter program, the aircraft was designed primarily as an air superiority fighter, but has additional capabilities including ground attack, electronic warfare, and signals intelligence roles.[6]Lockheed Martin is the prime contractor and is responsible for the majority of the airframe, weapon systems, and final assembly of the F-22, while program partner Boeing provides the wings, aft fuselage, avionics integration, and training systems.


Origins
In 1981 the U.S. Air Force developed a requirement for an Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) as a new air superiority fighter to replace the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon. Code named "Senior Sky", this program was influenced by the emerging worldwide threats, including development and proliferation of Soviet Su-27 "Flanker"- and MiG-29 "Fulcrum"-class fighter aircraft.




A diagram of the various manufacturers of the F-22

Prime contractor Lockheed Martin Aeronautics manufactured the majority of the airframe and performed final assembly at Dobbins Air Reserve Base in Marietta, Georgia; program partner Boeing Defense, Space & Security provided additional airframe components as well as avionics integration and training systems.[20] F-22 production was split up over many subcontractors across 46 states to increase Congressional support,[21][22] though this production split may have contributed to increased costs and delays.[23] Many capabilities were deferred to post-service upgrades, reducing the initial cost but increasing total program cost.[24] Production supported over 1,000 subcontractors and suppliers and up to 95,000 jobs.


F-22 being painted at the assembly plant at Marietta, Georgia



The first F-22, an engineering and manufacturing development (EMD) aircraft named Raptor 4001, was unveiled at Marietta, Georgia on 9 April 1997, and first flew on 7 September 1997.In 2006, the Raptor's development team, composed of over 1,000 contractors and the USAF, won the Collier Trophy, American aviation's most prestigious award. The F-22 was in production for 15 years, at a rate of roughly two per month during peak production.
Ban on exports


The F-22 cannot be exported under American federal law. Customers for U.S. fighters are acquiring earlier designs such as the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon or the newer F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter, which contains technology from the F-22 but is designed to be cheaper, more flexible, and available for export. In September 2006, Congress upheld the ban on foreign F-22 sales. Despite the ban, the 2010 defense authorization bill included provisions requiring the DoD to prepare a report on the costs and feasibility for an F-22 export variant, and another report on the impact of F-22 export sales on U.S. aerospace industry.


Two F-22s during flight testing, the upper one being the first EMD F-22, Raptor 4001


Production termination


Throughout the 2000s, the need for F-22s was debated due to rising costs and the lack of relevant adversaries. In 2006, Comptroller General of the United States David Walker found that "the DoD has not demonstrated the need" for more investment in the F-22, and further opposition to the program was expressed by Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, Deputy Secretary of Defense Gordon R. England, Senator John McCain, and Chairman of U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Services Senator John Warner. The F-22 program lost influential supporters in 2008 after resignation of Secretary of the USAF Michael Wynne and General T. Michael Moseley.Nevertheless, in 2008, Congress passed a defense spending bill funding the F-22's continued production and the Pentagon released $50 million of the $140 million for four additional aircraft, raising the total orders for production aircraft to 187 and leaving the program in the hands of the next administration



Two F-22As in close trail formation

Design

The F-22 Raptor is a fifth generation fighter that is considered fourth generation in stealth aircraft technology by the USAF.[102] It is the first operational aircraft to combine supercruise, supermaneuverability, stealth, and sensor fusion in a single platform.[8] The Raptor has large shoulder-mounted diamond wings, four empennage surfaces, and a retractable tricycle landing gear. Flight control surfaces include leading and trailing-edge flaps, ailerons, rudders on the canted vertical stabilizers, and all-moving horizontal tails; these surfaces also serve as speed brakes.

Stealth



The F-22 was designed to be highly difficult to detect and track by radar. Measures to reduce its radar cross section include airframe shaping such as planform alignment of edges, fixed-geometry serpentine (see S-duct) inlets that prevent line-of-sight of the engine faces from any exterior view, use of radar absorbent material (RAM), and attention to detail such as hinges and pilot helmets that could provide a radar return. The F-22 was also designed to have decreased radio, infrared signature and acoustic signature as well as reduced visibility to the naked eye. The aircraft's flat thrust vectoring nozzle reduces infrared emissions to mitigate the threat of infrared homing ("heat seeking") surface-to-air or air-to-air missiles. Additional measures to reduce the infrared signature include special paint and active cooling of leading edges to manage the heat buildup from supersonic flight.



For stealth, the F-22 carries weapons in internal bays. The doors for the centre and side bays are open; note the six LAU-142/A AMRAAM Vertical Eject Launchers (AVEL).


An F-22 fires an AIM-120 AMRAAM


An F-22 from Elmendorf AFB, Alaska, intercepting a Russian Tupolev Tu-95 near American airspace

Deployments


F-22 units are frequently deployed to Kadena Air Base in Okinawa, Japan.In February 2007, on the aircraft's first overseas deployment to Kadena Air Base, six F-22s of 27th Fighter Squadron flying from Hickam AFB, Hawaii, experienced multiple software-related system failures while crossing the International Date Line (180th meridian of longitude). The aircraft returned to Hawaii by following tanker aircraft. Within 48 hours, the error was resolved and the journey resumed.In early 2013, F-22s were involved in U.S.-South Korean military drills.




 
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600px-F22_Raptor_info.jpg










An F-22 observes as an F-15 Eaglebanks left


Operational problems

Operational problems have been experienced and some have caused fleet-wide groundings. Critically, pilots have experienced a decreased mental status, including losing consciousness.



There were reports of instances of pilots found to have a decreased level of alertness or memory loss after landing.[199] F-22 pilots have experienced lingering respiratory problems and a chronic cough; other symptoms include irritability, emotional lability and neurological changes.[199] A number of possible causes were investigated, including possible exposure to noxious chemical agents from the respiratory tubing, pressure suit malfunction, side effects from oxygen delivery at greater-than-atmospheric concentrations, and oxygen supply disruptions. Other problems include minor mechanical problems and navigational software failures.[200]The fleet was grounded for four months in 2011 before resuming flight, but reports of oxygen issues persisted.

Variants





Derivatives


The FB-22 was a proposed medium-range bomber for the USAF. The FB-22 was projected to carry up to 30 Small Diameter Bombs to about twice the range of the F-22A, while maintaining the F-22's stealth and supersonic speed. However, the FB-22 in its planned form appears to have been canceled with the 2006 Quadrennial Defense Review and subsequent developments, in lieu of a larger subsonic bomber with a much greater range.

The X-44 MANTA, or multi-axis, no-tail aircraft, was a planned experimental aircraft based on the F-22 with enhanced thrust vectoring controls and no aerodynamic surface backup.The aircraft was to be solely controlled by thrust vectoring, without featuring any rudders, ailerons, or elevators. Funding for this program was halted in 2000



F-22 from Tyndall AFB, Florida cruising over the Florida Panhandle.


An F-22 landing at Holloman AFB, New Mexico


An F-22, based at Elmendorf AFB, Alaska, over mountain terrain


F-22 with drop tanks in transit to Kadena Air Base, Japan, from Langley AFB, Virginia

Accidents

In April 1992, the second YF-22 crashed while landing at Edwards AFB. The test pilot, Tom Morgenfeld, escaped without injury. The cause of the crash was found to be a flight control software error that failed to prevent a pilot-induced oscillation.

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(Wreckage of the F-22 that crashed in November 2012)
The first F-22 crash occurred during takeoff at Nellis AFB on 20 December 2004, in which the pilot ejected safely before impact. The crash investigation revealed that a brief interruption in power during an engine shutdown prior to flight caused a malfunction in the flight-control system consequently the aircraft design was corrected to avoid the problem. All F-22s were grounded after the crash; operations resumed following a review.


Aircraft on display

EMD F-22A 91-4003 is on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force.


Specifications (F-22A)


General characteristics



    • Crew: 1​
    • Length: 62 ft 1 in (18.92 m)​
    • Wingspan: 44 ft 6 in (13.56 m)​
    • Height: 16 ft 8 in (5.08 m)​
    • Wing area: 840 ft² (78.04 m²)​
    • Airfoil: NACA 64A?05.92 root, NACA 64A?04.29 tip​
    • Empty weight: 43,340 lb (19,700 kg)​
    • Loaded weight: 64,840 lb[251] (29,410 kg)​
    • Max. takeoff weight: 83,500 lb (38,000 kg)​
    • Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 pitch thrust vectoring turbofans​
      • Dry thrust: 26,000 lb[251] (116 kN) each​
      • Thrust with afterburner: 35,000+ lb (156+ kN) each​
    • Fuel capacity: 18,000 lb (8,200 kg) internally, or 26,000 lb (12,000 kg) with two external fuel tanks​






Performance






        • Maximum speed:
      • At altitude: Mach 2.25 (1,500 mph, 2,410 km/h) [estimated][105]​
      • Supercruise: Mach 1.82 (1,220 mph, 1,960 km/h)[105]​
  • Range: >1,600 nmi (1,840 mi, 2,960 km) with 2 external fuel tanks​
  • Combat radius: 410 nmi (with 100 nmi in supercruise) (470 mi, 760 km)​
  • Ferry range: 2,000 mi (1,740 nmi, 3,220 km)​
  • Service ceiling: >65,000 ft (20,000 m)​
  • Wing loading: 77.2 lb/ft² (377 kg/m²)​
  • Thrust/weight: 1.08​
  • Maximum design g-load: −3.0/+9.0 g
Armament

600px-F22_Raptor_info.jpg



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    • Guns: 1× 20 mm (0.787 in) M61A2 Vulcan 6-barrel Gatling cannon in right wing root, 480 rounds​

      • Air to air loadout:
      • 6× AIM-120 AMRAAM​
      • 2× AIM-9 Sidewinder​

      • Air to ground loadout:
      • 2× 1,000 lb (450 kg) JDAM or 8× 250 lb (110 kg) GBU-39 Small Diameter Bombs​
      • 2× AIM-120 AMRAAM​
      • 2× AIM-9 Sidewinder​

    • Hardpoints: 4× under-wing pylon stations can be fitted to carry 600 U.S. gallon drop tanks or weapons, each with a capacity of 5,000 lb (2,270 kg)​

Avionics

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    • AN/APG-77 radar: 125–150 miles (200–240 km) against 1 m2 (11 sq ft) targets (estimated range)​

    • AN/AAR-56 Missile Launch Detector (MLD)​

    • AN/ALR-94 radar warning receiver (RWR): 250 nmi (463 km) or more detection range​

    • MJU-39/40 flares for protection against IR missiles​




 

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