How to counter Cruise Missiles and Suicide Drones | Page 3 | World Defense

How to counter Cruise Missiles and Suicide Drones

MaarKhoor

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Dear Members,

As the recent attack on Saudi oilfields showed that Cruise Missiles and Suicide Drones can be tough to counter, and can slip through existing air defence systems, I thought it would be prudent if we could have a thread on this topic.

@Signalian @Fenrir @Scorpion @BATMAN @AliYusuf @Defence_reader and others do feel free to contribute.
Indeed very easy, systems like patriot etc s-400 are very expensive and use against low cost cruise missiles and Drones....

What they need is manpads, shoulder launch systems, AA guns and Drones (Target area from where they launch attacks).
 
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Indeed very easy, systems like patriot etc s-400 are very expensive and use against low cost cruise missiles and Drones....

What they need is manpads, shoulder launch systems, AA guns and Drones (Target area from where they launch attacks).
Drones fly low and have a small RCS. So detection range against drones is very low. You cannot have a wide-area detection solution against drone with the currently available tech.

There's only so many rocket / gun systems you can spread across your critical installations and cities.

Drones are cheap and will come in as coordinated swarms.

The only viable solution I see is medium-range fast-firing automated AA guns.
 

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Skyshield Air-defence system is a modular, light weight, Short Range Air Defense (SHORAD) system developed by the Swiss corporation Oerlikon Contraves (now a subsidiary of Rheinmetall of Germany).

The successor to the Skyguard defense system, Skyshield is intended to rapidly acquire and destroy threatening aircraft and missiles. The weapons system itself consists of two 35 mm (1.38 inch) revolver cannons with a rate of fire of 1,000 rounds per minute, a fire control system made up of a sensor unit and a detached command post.

The Skyshield can also use up to two surface-to-air missile 8-cell modules for an expanded air defense capability. The Skyshield is designed for traditional anti-aircraft roles in addition to defense against missiles (see anti-ballistic missile).

The Skyshield is easily deployed by trucks and other transportation systems. The fire control system (FCS) uses an X-band search and tracking radar, and another unit for radar/TV and/or laser/FLIR precision tracking.

The command post can be placed up to 500 meters, roughly, from the fire control unit (FCU), using encrypted radio-waves.

The Skyshield system can also be networked with other air defense systems for wider and more effective air coverage, expanding its roles from point defense to area defense.
 

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Skyshield Air-defence system is a modular, light weight, Short Range Air Defense (SHORAD) system developed by the Swiss corporation Oerlikon Contraves (now a subsidiary of Rheinmetall of Germany).

The successor to the Skyguard defense system, Skyshield is intended to rapidly acquire and destroy threatening aircraft and missiles. The weapons system itself consists of two 35 mm (1.38 inch) revolver cannons with a rate of fire of 1,000 rounds per minute, a fire control system made up of a sensor unit and a detached command post.

The Skyshield can also use up to two surface-to-air missile 8-cell modules for an expanded air defense capability. The Skyshield is designed for traditional anti-aircraft roles in addition to defense against missiles (see anti-ballistic missile).

The Skyshield is easily deployed by trucks and other transportation systems. The fire control system (FCS) uses an X-band search and tracking radar, and another unit for radar/TV and/or laser/FLIR precision tracking.

The command post can be placed up to 500 meters, roughly, from the fire control unit (FCU), using encrypted radio-waves.

The Skyshield system can also be networked with other air defense systems for wider and more effective air coverage, expanding its roles from point defense to area defense.
This is the most effective system so far. They Skyguard radar.
 

Philip the Arab

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A layered air defense is needed to protect key facilities from cruise missiles, and drones.
If I was coordinating the ad this is what I would use.
Crotale NG would be used for long range intercepts(in terms of cruise missile engagements) that are far enough to intercept at 20KM. The search radar and has 30KM detection range, and a 20KM tracking range. I would like this setup more if it consisted of 5 of these vehicles with 8 missiles each which would mean a total of 40 missiles that could be fired at incoming cruise missiles.
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Medium range interception duties would fall on ADATS or similar system. The reason I choose this system is because it doesn't need to have a radar lock on small targets like drones, but instead the missile is guided by laser designation with a proximity fuze. This could be used on drones, cruise missiles, etc with low RCS that would be troublesome for other systems to lock on. The range is 10 KM with an altitude max of 7 KM. I would have 5 of these vehicles with 8 SAMs each which totals up to 40 missiles.

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I would use a few different systems for short range air defense
M1097 Avenger MANPADS vehicle
This vehicle would be used mainly against cruise missiles which are definitely hot enough to be engaged with their hot engines. I would have 5 vehicles of 8 missiles for 40 Stinger missiles able to be fired.
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K30 Biho SPAAG
This would be used for drones mostly. Armed with 30mm guns for engaging aerial targets at short ranges.
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Lockheed Martin-led team unveils new Falcon mobile air defence solution
20 February 2019

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The Falcon Weapon System comprises (left to right) the Saab Giraffe 4A multifunction radar, the Lockheed Martin SkyKeeper battle management system, and the Diehl Defence IRIS-T-SLM effector and launcher. Source: Lockheed Martin

A collaborative industry team led by Lockheed Martin unveiled a new mobile open architecture short-to-medium range air defence solution - designated the Falcon Weapon System - at the International Defence Exhibition and Conference in Abu Dhabi on 18 February.

According to the team, Falcon is intended to address "a critical gap in short- and medium-range ground-based air defence" to defeat "current and emerging threats", including weaponised unmanned aircraft systems (UASs), cruise missiles, and fixed- and rotary-wing platforms capable of delivering ordnance at extended ranges.

Developed with internal company investment funding, Falcon is the initial product of an earlier teaming agreement between Lockheed Martin, Saab, and Diehl Defence in 2016. Falcon combines the Diehl Defence IRIS-T-SLM (InfraRed Imaging System - Tail/Thrust Vector Controlled-Surface-Launched, Medium range) interceptor and 360º vertical launcher system and the Saab Surveillance Giraffe 4A active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar with Lockheed Martin's SkyKeeper command-and-control (C2) battle management system.

The Falcon system is being offered, in the first instance, as a significant capability upgrade to meet a UAE requirement to replace its legacy Raytheon-developed MIM-23 Hawk medium-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems. "We are currently in discussions to offer our solution to the UAE customer," Scott Arnold, vice-president and deputy of Integrated Air and Missile Defense at Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control, told Jane's . "However, while the genesis of the Falcon system began with the UAE, it is not unique to that requirement - we see a broader roadmap for this type of solution, with numerous areas of interest globally, and we will position it accordingly," he added.

A medium-range variant of the IRIS-T-SL short-range imaging IR-guided SAM - itself a derivative of the IRIS-T air-to-air missile - the IRIS-T-SLM interceptor is an all-weather, IR terminal homing effector. The interceptor is equipped with data link that transmits target information from the ground radar to the missile, and a high-explosive fragmentation warhead with an impact/active radar proximity fuze detonation system.


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Saab Giraffe 4A multifunction rada

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Lockheed Martin, Diehl and Saab target UAE as launch customer for Falcon Missile
Feb 18, 2019

US defence firm Lockheed Martin and security firms Diehl Defence and Saab have unveiled Falcon, a short and medium range air defense system, for which they hope the UAE will be the first customer.

The new missile system was developed in response to a request from the UAE, which seeks to replace Lockheed’s Hawk Air Defense System, the company said at the International Defense Exhibition and Conference (IDEX) show in Abu Dhabi on Monday.

“Our international customers are looking for the next generation short and medium range air defense solution – Falcon is threat-driven and ready now,” said Scott Arnold, Lockheed Martin’s vice-president and deputy head of Integrated Air and Missile Defense.

The Falcon missile is an example of Lockheed’s work with customers to “identify potential gaps and find rapid-response solutions to take on today’s evolving threats”, he added.

Diehl is the defence arm of German technology firm Diehl Group, while Sweden-based Saab provides military defence and civil security products and solutions.

Falcon integrates Diehl’s 40-kilometer range infra-red imaging system tail and vector-controlled interceptor and vertical launcher, with Saab’s 360-degree Giraffe radar system and Lockheed’s SkyKeeper command and control battle manager, the US firm said in a statement to media on Monday.

It is especially designed to counter threats such as unmanned aerial systems carrying lethal payloads, cruise missiles, and fixed and rotary winged aircraft capable of delivering ordnance at extended ranges.
 

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Giraffe 4A radar
Multi-mission surveillance
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Air surveillance
The ability to identify and track a high number of objects simultaneously makes the system suitable for air and sea surveillance as well as military ATC.

Ground-based air defence
Tracks air targets together with identification capability to to support multiple simultaneous engagements.

Weapon locating
Tracks ballistic projectiles and calculates point of origin and point of impact for counter-battery fire or adjustment of own fire.

Sense and warn

The ability to detect and warn for small incoming ballistic objects offers valuable protection of own forces or civilian protection objects.

Operational in all climate zones
Giraffe 4A is specified for operation in extreme climates, ranging from inland, coastal and hot desert to Arctic environments.

Giraffe 4A is reliable and easy to operate. Redundant design such as the AESA concept makes the time between critical failure extremely long; >2,500 h while typical repair time is less than 45 min.

Large volume C-UAS surveillance
Features include Saab’s unique function for enhanced low, slow and small (ELSS) target detection, which provides a dedicated counter-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) capability.

Antenna system
AESA - beam control in azimuth and elevation
  • S (E/F) band
  • GaN technology


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Volume search
• Rotating or non-rotating mode
• Continuous scan (mechanical or electrical)

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Horizontal search
  • Non-rotating
  • Sector scan with track on demand

Technical data

Radar typeStacked beam 3D radar
Antenna typeAESA, digital beam forming
FrequencyS (E/F) band
Elevation coverage> 70 degrees
Rotation rate30 or 60 RPM
Search volume360° or in a sector
Instrumented range
- Air surveillance280 km
- Weapon locating100 km
 

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Swarm Hell: Can the U.S. Army Stop Hundreds of Drones Armed with Explosives?
October 15, 2019
The threat is real--and Army has plans to stay ahead of the curve.
by Kris Osborn

View attachment 10894

(Washington, D.C.) They can form swarms of hundreds of mini, precision-guided explosives, overwhelm radar or simply blanket an area with targeting sensors. They can paint or light up air, ground or sea targets for enemy fighters, missiles or armored vehicles, massively increasing warzone vulnerability. The can instantly emerge from behind mountains to fire missiles at Army convoys, infantry on the move or even mechanized armored columns.

They can increasingly operate with less and less human intervention and be programmed to enter enemy airspace, crossing into well-defended areas with decreased risk. Finally, perhaps of greatest significance, many of them can now fire weapons with little human intervention.

They --- are commercial and military attack drones now proliferating at alarming rates around the world.

Not only are attack drones easily purchasable on the commercial market, but they are rapidly becoming more and more advanced given the lightning speed at which technology is now advancing. Video can be gathered with much higher fidelity at longer ranges, navigational systems can more accurately merge with sensors and targeting technologies and larger numbers of drones can increasingly operate in tandem - in a more coordinated fashion. Battery technology, to cite another example, is progressing so quickly that drones are increasing dwell time over targets, complicating any effort to defend against them.

Overall, the Army is fast-tracking what could be called an entire sphere of counter-drone weapons; these include Electronic Warfare innovations to jam enemy drone signals, Stryker-mounted Hellfire missiles to shoot drones out of the sky and -- in a Raytheon effort with the Army -- create an integrated “sense-track-hit” counter-drone kill chain.

Called the Howler, Raytheon’s Counter Unmanned Systems (C-UAS) could be described in terms of a three-pronged approach; mobile or ground fixed radar uses Ku band radio to detect enemy drones before the signals are analyzed by computerized fire control, leading to the firing of an armed tube-launched interceptor drone called Coyote.

“This operates throughout the kill chain. We start with sense and detect using our radars, then we use Command and Control which is the brains...and then our effectors,” Cliff Johnson, business development director for tactical radars, Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems, told Warrior.

The effectors, as referred to by Johnson, can come in the form of Raytheon’s Coyote 1 and Coyote 2 mini attack drones. Equipped with an advanced seeker and small warhead, Coyotes can launch from a range of locations, including fixed locations and armored vehicles on-the-move.
“It can be mounted on a vehicle where it has the radar and the Coyote launch tube, with a separate vehicle that has command and control. It can also be in fixed locations where everything is taken off the vehicle,” Johnson said.

For instance, in the event that an Infantry Brigade Combat Team, with armored vehicle support, were maneuvering through mountainous terrain, they could easily be vulnerable to sudden drone attacks. The Raytheon-Army Howler program, operational and ready for war, exists for exactly this reason. By sending electromagnetic “pings” forward at the speed of light, the Howler’s radar can bounce signals off enemy drones and then analyze the return signal. This process is engineered to produce a rendering of the size, shape and even speed of an enemy drone. This information is then processed through fire control technology, intended to target the enemy and guide the interceptor. Therefore, it seems almost too self-evident to say, speed is of the essence. This is why Johnson emphasized the rapid sensor-to-shooter coordination needed to complete the kill chain.
The pace of technical change, and its implications for attack drones, is well captured in a 2017 Essay in an Air and Space Power Journal called “AIR MINES: Countering the Drone Threat to Aircraft.”

“Moore’s Law states that the processing power of electronic devices doubles every 18 months. By 2025 the currently widely proliferated “quadcopter” drones and their successors will have the capability to fly autonomously—at much higher altitudes, with longer flights—and be capable of complex formation maneuvers. These advances may happen soon since drones are already making strides in these areas,” the essay states. (Lt Col Leslie F. Hauck III, USAF & Dr. John P. Geis II, Colonel, USAF, Retired .. as of 2017).


Interestingly, this move to accelerate sensor processing and fire control, as discussed by Johnson, aligns with current Army technical thinking when it comes to increasing the speed of fire control technology. Much of this naturally hinges upon computer processing speed and an ability to gather and organize vast pools of incoming sensor data. Therefore, it is no surprise that quickening the detection and processing functions has the attention of Army Futures Command’s Artificial Intelligence Task Force.

“Fire control is about enabling and speeding-up what you can recognize in the battlefield to help a soldier who might normally have to sift through intelligence data and look for cues to get the right targeting information,” Lt. Col. Chris Lowrance, autonomous systems lead, Army Artificial Intelligence Task Force, told reporters at the Association of the United States Army annual symposium.

All of this generates a compelling need to keep pace with technological change, surge advancement of weapons able to detect and destroy drones and pursue initiatives to better understand the technical mechanisms of drones themselves. These efforts, underway by both industry and the military services, represent the pursuit of technologies engineered to mirror, replicate and even acquire the types of commercial drones available around the world. Naturally, understanding the components and functions of enemy drones are the prerequisite or precursor to the development of technologies able to track and destroy them. Simply put, before a drone can be “jammed,” “intercepted” or “destroyed” by weapons, its technical mechanisms and functionality must first be understood.

“There are systems now that can take down UAS with little collateral damage, and these systems are becoming more autonomous in the short term,” Brig. Gen. Matt Easley, director of the Army Artificial Intelligence Task Force, told reporters at the Association of the United States Army Annual Symposium.

The challenges of taking out attacking drones, which Howler and other systems are engineered to meet, is now being addressed across the services. The Army’s Rapid Equipping Force has been fast-tracking electronic-warfare based weapons to “jam” enemy drones, the Navy has been tailoring shipboard sensors to enable interceptor weapons to knock out medium and low-flying drones in maritime combat and the Air Force has been working to upgrade fighter-based Active Electronically Scanned Arrays to find enemy drones at greater distances.
“How do we see attacks coming in and sift through those attacks faster? We want to see attacks in real time,” Easley said.
 

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Here’s why the US Army is under pressure from Congress to counter rockets and drones
OCT. 16, 2019
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As an interim solution to counter existing threats, the U.S. Army bought two Iron Dome air defense systems. (Ilia Yefimovich/Getty Images)

WASHINGTON — The U.S. Army is under pressure to develop an enduring indirect fires protection capability, or IFPC, before fiscal 2023 due to a congressional mandate that the service buy more stand-alone interim systems if it doesn’t have a plan for an overarching system by then.

The service bought two Iron Dome air defense systems co-developed by Israeli company Rafael and American firm Raytheon as an interim solution to counter existing threats — particularly cruise missiles. In the service’s FY19 budget, Congress mandated the Army deploy two batteries by FY20.

To fill the gap, “there was nothing else out there that was deemed feasible, acceptable and suitable to get after the threats where IFPC is intended to operate,” Brig. Gen. Brian Gibson, who is in charge of the service’s air and missile defense modernization effort, told Defense News in an interview shortly before the Association of the U.S. Army’s annual conference.

“We bought Iron Dome because that was the only way we were going to meet timelines. It was the right thing to do, but it’s a stand-alone weapon system and, at this point, our intent is to not buy more stand-alone weapon systems,” he said.

The Army instead would like to take the best-of-breed launchers, sensors and shooters tied together by the service’s Integrated Battle Command System to build a platform capable of countering rockets, artillery and mortar threats as well as unmanned aircraft systems and cruise missiles.

Iron Dome is “a very good weapon system for why it was designed and how it’s employed inside of Israel,” Gibson said. “There’s quite a bit of advantages, especially with its missiles and its launchers.” The question is whether the service can we integrate Iron Dome with U.S. sensors and the U.S. architecture using IBCS. Gibson explain.

"Is that feasible in cost, schedule and time without significant changes in performance?” he asked. “If the answer is ‘yes,’ that’s a pretty powerful path forward because you’re basing it on your common mission command system you have today for the rest of your force, your air defense force. You’re taking advantage of your sensors you have today and you’re not introducing another different sensor inside of your defense programs.”

That decision is still out in front of the Army, and the service is experimenting to try to decide the right path before it would have to commit to buying more interim solutions.

“For us as an Army and [the Department of Defense] and the joint force, failure would be if we are forced to buy more stand-alone weapon systems; and it’s not just Iron Dome, you pick it. I don’t care what it is,” Gibson said.

The service has to make a decision well in advance of 2023, Gibson noted, because the Army needs time to decide on a path, make
recommendations and develop a timeline. “I see that more as a near-term decision and recommendation that we’re going to seek to achieve this year,” he said.

The Army recently decided not to proceed with its self-developed multimission launcher. The service has also paused its efforts to qualify future interceptors for the IFPC program to include Lockheed Martin’s Miniature Hit-to-Kill missile.
 

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The Army prepares for electronic warfare prototypes
17 Oct 2019

View attachment 11081
The Tactical Electronic Warfare System (TEWS), above, is one prototype the Army is using to inform the development of its Terrestrial Layer System. (Photo credit: Army)


Within the next six months, the Army is expected to choose at least two companies for prototypes and experiments on the service’s first integrated signals intelligence, electronic warfare and cyber platform.

The Army has been conducting what it calls “pre-prototypes” to test capabilities, concepts and receive feedback from soldiers for the platform, known as the Terrestrial Layer System.

The window for proposals to evolve these pre-prototypes closes Oct. 31 and the Army’s electronic warfare program manager said the plan is to have a decision on the winners by April.

“The next goal is for them to provide some prototypes and we’ll put those prototypes on a platform and then we’ll actually put those in the soldier’s hand to help evaluate those,” said Col. Kevin Finch, program manager for electronic warfare and cyber within Program Executive Office Intelligence, Electronic Warfare and Sensors. Finch spoke to C4ISRNET during an interview Oct. 15 at the annual Association of the U.S. Army conference. “Then we’ll downselect to one vendor and then we’ll go forward."

Finch said the plan is to have the first units equipped with the system by fall 2022.

The two primary pre-prototypes include the Tactical Electronic Warfare System (TEWS) — mounted on a Stryker and its smaller Flyer72 based variant Tactical Electronic Warfare Light (TEWL) — and the Tactical Signals Intelligence Vehicle (TSIG). Both are integrated platforms the Army is using to experiment with technologies that would allow for sensing, signals intelligence, electronic warfare and RF-enabled cyberattacks.

TEWS is being used with 2nd Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division, which took the system to the National Training Center as a way for Army leaders to learn how it was used. It was also part of the Cyber Blitz experiment in September.

TEWL has also been used by 173rd airborne brigade combat team in Vicenza, Italy, according to officials with General Dynamics. Army leaders aren’t just interested in the capability itself, officials and members of industry have said, but the concepts for how they will be used.

Finch explained that service leaders aren’t exactly sure which vehicle types TLS will be outfitted to.

“The feedback that we’re receiving from [Forces Command] is driving that as well as the feedback from the units,” he said. “Obviously, they want to see a vehicle that is like to the formation. For a Stryker to have a Stryker. For an armored formation it would be an [Assault Breacher Vehicle] type of platform. Right now that’s actually one of the decisions we’re waiting to get finalized moving forward is ‘hey, what platform do you need to put this on?’”

Officials have described a TLS family of ground systems to include an extended range, which will be used as a division and corps asset, TLS large, which will be a mounted on a large vehicle like a Stryker, TLS small, which will likely remain vehicle mounted but feature a smaller form factor, and TLS dismount.

TLS large is expected to be the first to be developed and fielded.
 

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Assalamoalaikum.
How about deploying a combination of SPAAGs and denel Cheetah or mongoose?
If we go through SIPRI reports, we have many skyguard radars with oerlikkon or, its chinese equivalent, type 90 radars. If we can further collaborate with denel on cheetah/mongoose, it will be a satisfactory combination/defence shield against the drone swarms inshaAllah.
Similarly, we have older 57mm air defence guns. If they can be equiped with something like AHEAD rounds, then the drone swarms can effectively be undertaken inshaAllah.
 

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How real is the threat and what are we protecting, all matters in the selection of solution.
If it's a refinery, i would say, early detection and jamming is good enough.
This all is possible with helium balloons around facility housing AESA radars.
If it's a cities like Mecca/ Riyadh /Jeddah, are targeted, than source shall be counter attacked with full force and dealt with at multiple dimensions.
 
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I said it previously on the last page of this thread - How to counter Cruise Missiles and Suicide Drones - and I'll say it again... as someone who works in the defence industry and is familiar with industry trends, it's not MANPADS or cannons or missiles that's being explored as the primary counter to UAV and swarm missile attacks, it's directed energy weapon and electronic warfare.

American Strykers in Europe have been trailing laser weapon systems during NATO drills against UAVs of various kinds and have found them to be very effective in certain scenarios, but notice how all these vehicles have electronic warfare equipment too?






On the MRZR is a pure AESA-based electronic warfare design. On the JTLV is a combined AESA-based electronic warfare array, laser weapon system, cannon and missile launcher.


Same on this JLTV. Laser, remote gun and laser aiming system and electronic warfare array.


From European companies you're seeing electronic warfare SHORAD systems like the M-AUDS from BAE and MESMER from Thales.



This is what the industry and leading military powers are exploring. Not fixed SHORAD systems like SkyGuard or Korkut, not missile batteries like NASAMS or PATRIOT, not even systems like Pantsir. The defence industry is investing heavily in directed energy weapons and electronic warfare because they work,
 

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