Indonesia Aerospace Industry | World Defense

Indonesia Aerospace Industry

Indos

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This is the thread about Indonesia aerospace industry. For the thread starter I am going to start from si Kumbang aircraft, the first metal aircraft designed and made by Indonesian in 1954. The aircraft is made in Indonesia Air Force research and production depot. The depot later become Indonesia first aerospace company, PT Dirgantara Indonesia (PTDI) or Indonesian Aerospace Inc. The designer is Nurtanio. He is the pioneer of Indonesia aerospace.

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The LIPNUR Sikumbang (manufacturer designation X-01) was a low-wing monoplane of mixed construction built in Indonesia in 1954 as a COIN and anti-guerrilla-warfare aircraft. Of conventional configuration, it had fixed tricycle undercarriage and seated the pilot under a bubble canopy. A single example was built under the designation NU-200 in 1954, and another as the NU-225 in 1957. The latter machine was grounded in 1967.

Specifications (NU-200)
Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1955–56[1]
General characteristics
  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 8.16 m (26 ft 9 in)
  • Wingspan: 10.61 m (34 ft 10 in)
  • Height: 3.35 m (11 ft 0 in)
  • Wing area: 16.9 m2 (182 sq ft)
  • Aspect ratio: 6.6:1
  • Airfoil: NACA 23015 at root, NACA 23009 at tip
  • Empty weight: 795 kg (1,753 lb)
  • Gross weight: 1,090 kg (2,403 lb)
  • Fuel capacity: 205 L (54 US gal; 45 imp gal)
  • Powerplant: 1 × de Havilland Gipsy Six air-cooled inverted six-cylinder inline engine, 150 kW (200 hp)
  • Propellers: 2-bladed fixed pitch

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 256 km/h (159 mph, 138 kn)
  • Cruise speed: 224 km/h (139 mph, 121 kn)
  • Range: 960 km (600 mi, 520 nmi)
  • Service ceiling: 5,030 m (16,500 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 5.1 m/s (1,000 ft/min)


 
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TomCat

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Nice read, welcome to the forum
 

Indos

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More aircraft designed and made by Air force research and production depot (LIPNUR)

Belalang (first flight April 17, 1958)
1573885972491.png

Kunang (first flight 1958)
1573886046033.png


Gelatik (under license from Cheko)
1573886218962.png
 
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Indos

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LIPNUR become PT Industri Pesawat Terbang Nurtanio (IPTN) in 1976 which later change name into PT Dirgantara Indonesia (Indonesia Aerospace).

This is from Wiki

Indonesian Aerospace (IAe) or official Indonesian name PT Dirgantara Indonesia (Persero) is an Indonesian aerospace company involved in aircraft design and the development and manufacture of civilian and military regional commuter aircraft. The company was formerly known as Industri Pesawat Terbang Nusantara (IPTN; Nusantara Aircraft Industry).[1][2] It was expanded from a research and industrial facility under the auspices of the Indonesian Air Force, namely Lembaga Industri Penerbangan Nurtanio (LIPNUR) or Nurtanio Aviation Industry Institute.[3]

Established in 1976 as a state owned company, it has developed its capability as an aircraft manufacturer and diversified into other areas, such as telecommunication, automotive, maritime, information technology, oil & gas, control & automation, military, simulation technology, industrial turbine, and engineering services.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

PT DI main production during 1980's is production of NC 212 aircraft under licensed from CASA.
 

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On October 1979 IPTN (now PT Dirgantara Indonesia) make a joint venture with CASA to design and produce CN235. Both have 50 % stake.

From PT Dirgantara website:

On October 17, 1979, IPTN and CASA (now Airbus Defense & Space) established a new joint-venture company, Aircraft Technology (Airtech) to design the CN235. This new multi-purpose aircraft has a Short Take-Off and Landing (STOL) capability at 800 meters rugged airstrips, ramp door for out/coming goods easily, and low cost maintenance characteristics.

The first prototype “Elena” produced by CASA made the maiden flight on November 11, 1983 and the second prototype “Tetuko” produced by IPTN (now PTDI) flew for the first time on December 1983. The serial production began in 1986 for the 10 and 100 versions


Later on PTDI developed the improved version such as 110 and 220 versions; while Airbus Defense & Space with 200 and 300 versions. Nowadays, more than 300 CN235s have been produced in many versions with the latest two General Electric CT7-9C engines (each has 1,750 SHP).


In the collaboration for export purpose, PTDI produces outer wings, horizontal stabilizers, vertical fins and doors for Airbus Defense & Space; while Airbus Defense & Space produces disassembled noses, disassembled cockpit, and center wings for PTDI.


CN 235 USA Coast Guard
1574253168173.png


CN 235 US Air Force
1574253329408.png
 
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Indos

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The IPTN N-250 is a regional aircraft commuter turboprop, an original design by the Indonesian firm IPTN (Industri Pesawat Terbang Nusantara) (now Indonesian Aerospace), N letter in front of -250 stands for Nurtanio or Nusantara and 250 denotes a twin-engined aircraft with a capacity of 50 passengers. This aircraft was IPTN's first major effort to win the market share of the regional turboprop class of 50–70 seat airliners. The aircraft was the star exhibit at the 1996 Indonesian Air Show in Cengkareng, but its development was eventually cancelled after the Asian financial crisis of 1998.

Design and development
The N-250 development plan was first revealed by PT IPTN (now PT Dirgantara Indonesia,Indonesian Aerospace) at the Paris Air Show in 1989, but was first introduced in 1986 when the Indonesian Air Show 1986 was held. The first prototype, serial number PA-1 with a capacity of 50 passengers, flew on 10 August 1995. The Second prototype, a stretched variant with a capacity of 70 passengers named N250-100, was planned to have its first flight on May 1996, but this was delayed and the plane was instead first flown on 19 December 1996. The third and fourth prototypes were planned to first fly on July 1996 and September 1996 respectively, but construction for both aircraft were halted due to the financial meltdown in Asia the following year.


1574286856685.png


First Flight 1995


The reason the program is cancelled is due to IMF prohibition for Indonesian government to finance the program. Indonesia paid its debt to IMF in 2006 but unfortunately the program is still not continued.
 
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Scorpion

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On October 1979 IPTN (now PT Dirgantara Indonesia) make a joint venture with CASA to design and produce CN235. Both have 50 % stake.

From PT Dirgantara website:

On October 17, 1979, IPTN and CASA (now Airbus Defense & Space) established a new joint-venture company, Aircraft Technology (Airtech) to design the CN235. This new multi-purpose aircraft has a Short Take-Off and Landing (STOL) capability at 800 meters rugged airstrips, ramp door for out/coming goods easily, and low cost maintenance characteristics.

The first prototype “Elena” produced by CASA made the maiden flight on November 11, 1983 and the second prototype “Tetuko” produced by IPTN (now PTDI) flew for the first time on December 1983. The serial production began in 1986 for the 10 and 100 versions


Later on PTDI developed the improved version such as 110 and 220 versions; while Airbus Defense & Space with 200 and 300 versions. Nowadays, more than 300 CN235s have been produced in many versions with the latest two General Electric CT7-9C engines (each has 1,750 SHP).


In the collaboration for export purpose, PTDI produces outer wings, horizontal stabilizers, vertical fins and doors for Airbus Defense & Space; while Airbus Defense & Space produces disassembled noses, disassembled cockpit, and center wings for PTDI.


CN 235 USA Coast Guard
View attachment 11817

CN 235 US Air Force
View attachment 11818
Manufactured under license?
 

Indos

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Manufactured under license?
Of course not, it is clearly said in PT Dirgantara website that it is a joint venture and both companies contribute since the start. Even if Casa (now Airbus) export this aircraft, some part will still be made in PT Dirgantara. Without this project it is impossible for PT Dirgantara to design N 250 alone.

This is from Airbus website

Stepping up in size, CASA and IPTN began a joint development of the larger CN235 in January 1980, leading to a first flight in November 1983. With active production continuing today at the Airbus industrial facility near Seville, Spain, more than 280 of these pressurised twin turboprop-powered, rear-ramp equipped aircraft have been ordered by military operators, civilian carriers and transport companies, as well as for government and paramilitary operators. The versatility of this aircraft – which has a maximum take-off weight in the 16,000-kg. category – is demonstrated by the CN235’s diverse applications, covering the spectrum from airline flights, patrol and anti-drug trafficking to cargo, VIP duties and special missions.

 

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N2130 Regional Jet

Companies considering a regional jet (or participation in a program) include PT Industri Pesawat Terbang Nusantara (IPTN) of Indonesia. Indonesia has indicated its desire to bring to market the IPTN-designed N-2130 turbofan, a 104- to 132-seat aircraft that began as an outgrowth of its N-250 turboprop. The N250 turboprop carrier was the pride of Indonesia. Coming exactly a week before the 50th anniversary of Indonesia's declaration of independence from the Dutch, the first flight of the N-250 turboprop in August 1995 brimmed with symbolism. The successful first flight for Indonesia's new N-250 commercial airplane led to an announcement of a plan for a mid-range jet aircraft to be finished in 2003 or 2004. Experts said the new, $2 billion plan was even more ambitious, entering a fiercely competitive arena. Habibie's son, a former Boeing engineer, was to head it up.

The N2130 Technology Program (NTP) was launched in October 1994 as a market and product-definition study. The NTP team was headed by Habibie's eldest son, Ilham, and consists of IPTN's younger, so-called "second generation", design engineers and managers. Its work was to be concluded by March 1997, with the drafting of the aircraft's design requirements and objectives.

PT Dua Satu Tiga Puluh (DSTP) as owner or holding company was founded in 1995 [1996?], soon after IPTN N250's roll out. Though industry officials pointed to the aerospace sector's lack of skill in finding and attracting varied sources of capital, the industry had made some progress in securing alternate funding. PT Dua Satu Tiga Puluh (DSTP) was founded to function as IPTN's fund-raising agency for the N-2130. DSTP was to raise the $2 billion needed for the design, prototyping, and certification of the aircraft through the private investment of individuals, corporations, and foundations, and an initial shares offering to the Indonesian public.

The aircraft itself, the twin jet 80-130 passenger aircraft N2130, was put into design since 1994, while the plan was already announced three years earlier. According to the timetable presented by IPTN during the Le Bourget Paris Airshow 1995, on March 1997 N2130 should be on 'Design Requirements and Objective' phase, by April 1997, it should have been in the preliminary design process which will be finalized in 2000. According to the 1995 time table, the all-Indonesian-made aircraft would have its maiden flight on March 2004, and the very next month go into certification process until it finally delivered to its first operator on the June 2006 Indonesia Air Show.

Considering the cost and level of technology involved, some observers questioned whether the N2130 project was just a ticket to participation in one of the other various Asian 100-seater projects. In a market report published on 16 May 1996, the Teal Group dismissed the project as a scheme "driven by techno-nationalist fantasies, not market realities." Even Western firms jockeying for a spot on the aircraft were guarded about its prospects.

By late 1996 three versions were envisaged, with a 29.45m-long airframe serving as the baseline 100-seat design. This will be followed by an 80-seat, 22.20m-shrink version and a 39.20m-stretch derivative, seating up to 130 passengers, in a single-class configuration. Subsequent consultations with airlines, however, revealed little support for either an 80-seater or a five-abreast cabin cross-section. So by 1997 IPTN had dropped plans to develop a shortened, 80-seat, version of the planned N2130 short-haul jet-airliner and instead opted for a larger-aircraft family with six-abreast seating for between 104 and 132 passengers.

Designers opted for a 3.95m-diameter circular-section hull, while the length of the baseline aircraft was been lengthened by 1m, to 31.25m. The baseline N2130, tentatively designated the -100, would be able to accommodate 114 passengers in single-class configuration, with 812mm seat pitch, or 104 in a mixed two-class layout. The stretched, 33.86m-long, -200 version would seat up to 132 passengers in an all-tourist-class configuration. In the face of increased competition from other Asian consortia in the 100-seat jet market, by 1998 IPTN had opted to speed up development by 2 years, leading to planned production of the first N-2130 aircraft by 2002 and deliveries beginning in 2004.

A wing part of a 1:7.89 scale half-span wind tunnel model was designed and built for Indonesian Aircraft Industries (IPTN) in the years 1999/2000 by Vojnotehnièki Institut Ratka Resanoviæa [VTI], Beograd, Serbia. The wing segment comprised: wing, including main wing box (1805mm half-span), single-slotted flaps (4 positions), clean high-speed leading edges, slats, an immovable aileron, and installation for measurement of pressure distribution on seven chordwise wing sections, ·wing-fuselage fairing, through-flow nacelle (TFN) and its pylon, with instrumentation for measurement of pressure distribution, turbofan power simulator nacelle (TPS) and its pylon, with instrumentation for measurement of internal flow parameters and other installations necessary or the operation of the power simulator.

Most of the model was produced on CNC milling machines. For some specific components CNC EDM (electrode and wire-cut) was used. Artistic hand finish was applied when appropriate. Main parts were built from high-grade stainless steel, while the less stressed parts were made from aluminum alloy. Quality control was carried out on CMM coordinate measuring machines. Main parts of the wing were the outer and the inner wing box, each box assembled from the upper and the lower half. Sides of the boxes formed two main spars of the wing. Leading and trailing edge devices were detachable in order to enable changing of wing configuration.

In July 2000 the wing was transported to ONERA facilities at Tolouse and there was assembled with the fuselage-tail assembly. During the summer of the same year the model was successfully tested in F1 and S1 wind tunnels.

In the decade of the 1990's the human aspect once again took center stage in the design and operation of commercial aircraft. As occupation health and safety has gained importance in society in general, it has gained even more importance in the design an operation of commercial aircraft. In aircraft design today, the man-machine interface is considered in every task of the human workload. The discipline of ergonomics truly impacts each phase of product or tool design. At IPTN, the ergonomics effort is principally being applied to the design of the cockpit, cabin and cargo compartment of the N250. The ergonomists at IPTN are keenly aware that there would be a conflict between the user and his working environment without proper attention to the human considerations in the design is left for ergonomists and innovative programs like IPTN's participatory approach, to ensure that the human aspect is optimized in the man-machine interface.

Wwhile industry sources confirmed the existence of a potential Indonesian market for regional aircraft, opinions differed as to the size of this market, an important factor in IPTN's ability to achieve the economies of scale necessary to produce an international competitive aircraft. A feasibility study by IPTN projected that 25 percent of global demand for regional jet aircraft of approximately 100 seats will be met through sales of the N-2130, specifically 168 units domestically and 632 units internationally during 2005-2025.

By 1998 the Indonesian aircraft industry faced serious economic and political uncertainty because of the region's financial crisis. Nonetheless, Indonesian industry officials indicated that the aircraft industry was proceeding into the preliminary and detail design stages of the N-2130 program. Though IPTN had long supported a large aerospace work force, employees' work hours were cut to reduce expenditures and the company plans to lay off 3,000 workers in 1998.

Despite a possible postponement of 2-3 years, as of 1998 Indonesia intended to continue development of the N-2130 regional jet and looked to market the aircraft throughout Asia. In 1998 DSTP officials indicated that the company was considering listing its shares on the Jakarta Stock Exchange in 5-6 years and may eventually allow foreign investment. As of September 1997, DSTP raised 25 percent of the N-2130's development costs. However, the ability of DSTP to meet its goal of raising $2 billion by 2002 was uncertain. DSTP officials indicated that the country's financial situation had severely inhibited fund-raising abilities, and complaints over the public shares offering have reportedly prompted IPTN to call for a review of the company's methods of capital mobilization.

On September 29, 1999, PT Dua Satu Tiga Puluh (DSTP), the company responsible for N2130's funding, was officially dismissed. Its preliminary design was to be handed over to the Ministry of Industry and Trade, and the US$ 70 million spent on the design process was to be considered as 'sunk-cost'.

 

Indos

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The company having financial problem during 1999-2004 due to IMF prohibition for Indonesian government to inject money to PT Dirgantara that make N 250 and N 2130 program are stopped. The employee are cut from around 8000 into 4500. Many Indonesian engineers are left to work in Boeing and Airbus. At least 100-200 engineers left to work in western aerospace company.

In 2006 PT Dirgantara start a new aircraft program called N 219 and able to have first flight in August 2017. During this period, many fresh graduates designers are hired and the program become the the tool to transfer knowledge from experience designers into young and unexperience ones.



1575752575773.png
 
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RI sending KFX jet-fighter production team to South Korea

11th July 2011

1576918340722.png


Jakarta (ANTARA News) - Indonesia is sending a KFX warplane production engineering team to South Korea as part of a cooperation agreement between the two nations to produce jet-fighters, a defense ministry official said here on Monday.

The team is composed of personnel from the Indonesian Air Force, Bandung-based Institute of Technology (ITB) and Indonesian aircraft maker PT Dirgantara Indonesia (DI).

Defense Ministry Secretary General Rear Marshal Erris Heriyanto said the team received an award from Defense Minister Purnomo Yusgiantoro here on Monday.

Erris said that Indonesia and South Korea had agreed to cooperate in the production of KFX warplanes in Seoul, South Korea, on July 15, 2010.

Virtually, the KFX jet-fighter production project is an old project by the Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF) which only now could it be realized.

The idea of the project came from South Korean President Kim Dae Jung on March 2001 to replace older planes like F-4D/E Phantom II and F-5E/F Tiger.

Compared with F-16, KFX is projected to have an attack radius 50 percent higher, better avionic system and better anti radar (stealth) capability.

Erris said that Indonesia tried to do its best to meet its need for main weaponry system, including in the development of warplanes.

Therefore, Indonesia agreed to cooperate with South Korea, he added.

On the occasion, the two sides agreed that 80 percent of the funding would borne by partner country while the remaining 20 percent by Indonesia.

He said that the cooperation for the development of the 4.5 generation warplanes would be carried out in three stages, namely technological development in the 2011-2012 period, engineering and manufacturing and the third stage is the production phase.

Erris said that both sides agreed to produce some 150 to 200 units of KFX of which Indonesia would get 50 units.

"The three units would meet the need of three combat air-borne squadrons," he said.
(Uu.A014/HAJM)

 

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RI sending KFX jet-fighter production team to South Korea

11th July 2011

View attachment 12005

Jakarta (ANTARA News) - Indonesia is sending a KFX warplane production engineering team to South Korea as part of a cooperation agreement between the two nations to produce jet-fighters, a defense ministry official said here on Monday.

The team is composed of personnel from the Indonesian Air Force, Bandung-based Institute of Technology (ITB) and Indonesian aircraft maker PT Dirgantara Indonesia (DI).

Defense Ministry Secretary General Rear Marshal Erris Heriyanto said the team received an award from Defense Minister Purnomo Yusgiantoro here on Monday.

Erris said that Indonesia and South Korea had agreed to cooperate in the production of KFX warplanes in Seoul, South Korea, on July 15, 2010.

Virtually, the KFX jet-fighter production project is an old project by the Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF) which only now could it be realized.

The idea of the project came from South Korean President Kim Dae Jung on March 2001 to replace older planes like F-4D/E Phantom II and F-5E/F Tiger.

Compared with F-16, KFX is projected to have an attack radius 50 percent higher, better avionic system and better anti radar (stealth) capability.

Erris said that Indonesia tried to do its best to meet its need for main weaponry system, including in the development of warplanes.

Therefore, Indonesia agreed to cooperate with South Korea, he added.

On the occasion, the two sides agreed that 80 percent of the funding would borne by partner country while the remaining 20 percent by Indonesia.

He said that the cooperation for the development of the 4.5 generation warplanes would be carried out in three stages, namely technological development in the 2011-2012 period, engineering and manufacturing and the third stage is the production phase.

Erris said that both sides agreed to produce some 150 to 200 units of KFX of which Indonesia would get 50 units.

"The three units would meet the need of three combat air-borne squadrons," he said.
(Uu.A014/HAJM)

KFX is a dead project. After 19 years now not a single screw was put in place.
 

Indos

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KFX is a dead project. After 19 years now not a single screw was put in place.
The real effort to develop the fighter is actually started in 2011 where Indonesia and South Korea (ADD) set up research together. This is why the aircraft design is coming up after that period. So the real development is 9 years and it has finished 80 % detail design work in this September and has done critical design review at that month as well. I believe critical design phase can be finished 100 % this year inshaAllah so that next year the program can focus on the first prototype production.

Actually some part has been produced in February this year.

1576963063240.png


 
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