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Naval Guns

Justin

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5"/54 (12.7 cm) Mark 45



Firing the 5"/54 (12.7cm) on USS Benfold DDG-65 in April 1997
Note the projectile on the left side
US Navy Photograph No. 970416-N-4142G-002



Installing a 5"/54 (12.7 cm) Mark 45 mount
Photograph copyrighted by United Defense



Barrel cleaning on USS Hopper DDG-70
US Navy Photograph No. 020805-N-3580W-005



Rear view of 5"/54 Mark 45 aboard USS Benfold (DDG-65) in July 2002
Note the framing of the Mark 45 and the canvas-covered 0.50" BMG Mount on starboard side
US Navy Photograph No. 020728-N-5067K-004




Gunner's Mate 3rd Class Arthur Bilbey stacking ammunition on USS Curtis Wilbur DDG-54 in January 2005
U.S. Navy Photograph No. 050111-N-9851B-010



Loading 5"/54 ammunition into storage racks aboard USS John Young (DD-973) in February 1998
U.S. Navy Photograph No. 980209-N-4142G-003



Diagram of 5"/54 (12.7 cm) Mark 45 Mod 0
Sketch copyrighted by United Defense




Ammunition types used on the 5"/54 (12.7 cm) and one for the 16"/50 (40.6 cm) Mark 7




Sketch of Mark 64 Projectile




Cutaway view of Mark 88 Illumination Projectile



Components of Mark 88 Illumination Projectile​
 

Justin

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76 mm/62 (3") Compact and SR
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United States of America
76 mm/62 (3") Mark 75
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Japan
76 mm/62 (3") Compact
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76 mm (3") Mark 75 aboard USS Curts FFG-38 in July 2003
Detail from US Navy Photograph No. 030718-N-4178C-002



Rear of 76 mm (3") gun on USS Curts FFG-38 in June 2001
Royal Thai Navy (RTN) Chief Petty Officer Second Class (PO2) Bunkurd Wannoo receives basic operating instructions from US Navy (USN) Chief Gunners Mate (GMC) Richard McDonough
US Navy Photograph No. 010626-N-6077T-006




76 mm (3") muzzle brake on USS Curts FFG-38 in June 2001
Unidentified USN Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate in background
US Navy Photograph No. 010626-N-6077T-008



MM Audace
Two 76 mm (3") Compact guns are along the starboard side
Official Marina Militare Italiana (Italian Navy) photograph



Compact guns on Singapore Patrol Boats Brave (95) and Daring (98) in June 2001
The "radar mast" on Daring (98) is actually a light pole on the dock behind her
Detail from US Navy Photograph No. 010613-J-9271Z-008



76 mm (3") Compact on Saudi Arabian Patrol Boat Amr PGG-522 in 1982
Note the Phalanx mount on stern
US Navy Photograph No. DN-SC-82-08857




76 mm (3") SR low-RCS mounting on Japanese Patrol Boat Hayabusa
Photograph courtesy of the JMSDF



76 mm (3") gun on an Australian Adelaide Class Frigate
The unique double plume of smoke forms as a result of the muzzle brake redirecting some of the propellant gasses back towards the gun
Australian Navy Photograph No. FFG01-8098687-030605-008



76 mm (3") Ammunition Stowage
USS Reuben James FFG-57 in October 2002
US Navy Photograph No. 021022-N-4309A-379




Loading a practice round aboard Chilean Navy frigate CS Riveros (FF18) in July 2008
US Navy Photograph No. 080720-N-3931M-078




76 mm (3") guns being built at the OTO-Melara Facility
Photograph copyrighted by Finmeccanica




76 mm (3") Super Rapid (SR) Mounting
Image copyrighted by OTO-Melara



USN 76 mm (3") Mark 75 Sketch from General Specification Sheet
Sketch copyrighted by United Defense




Sketch of Compact Mounting
Image copyrighted by OTO-Melara



Sketch of SR Mounting
Note that the overall length is slightly shorter than in the Compact mounting
Image copyrighted by OTO-Melara



Cutaway view of USN Mark 145 Round



Anti-missile DART sub-caliber projectile
Image copyrighted by OTO-Melara



Vulcano 76 mm projectile
This is the proposed guided version, the initial projectile will be unguided. See 127 mm/64 Datapage for other details.​
 

Justin

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57 mm/70 (2.25") Mark 110




Swedish fast patrol boat Jagaren
57 mm/70 Mark 1 with 2-inch (5.1 cm) flare rockets on sides
Picture copyrighted by Bofors Defence




Bofors 57 mm/70 Mark 2
Picture copyrighted by Bofors Defence




57 mm/70 Bofors Mark 3
USN 57 mm/70 Mark 110
Note the small radar on top of the barrel
Image copyrighted by BAE Systems




57 mm Mark 3 showing standard and low radar cross-section (LRCS) mountings
This LRCS mounting was not adopted, see below for LRCS for DD(X)
Sketch copyrighted by United Defense




57 mm/70 Bofors Mark 3 (EX 110) with all access hatches opened
Taken at Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren (NSWCD) in November 2003
Note the 76 mm/62 Mark 75 at the right
USCG Photograph



57 mm EX (for Experimental) Mark 110 mounting with gun barrel in the reload position

During reloading, the gun barrel is raised to its maximum elevation, which lowers the ready use magazines. The ammunition cassettes are then traversed over the tops of the ready-use magazines and empty their rounds into them.

In this photograph, the right-hand ammunition cassette is the curved box inside of the housing. The tops of the ready-use magazines can be seen to the left of this cassette. Note the triangular shape of the openings in the ready-use magazines, which guide the noses of the projectiles as they drop into the ready-use magazines.

Taken at Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren (NSWCD) in November 2003
USCG Photograph



57 mm/70 Mark 110 on Test Stand in Louisville, KY
USCG Photograph



57 mm/70 Gun being test fired at Potomac River Test Range
USCG Photograph




57 mm being installed onto USCG Bertholf (WMSL 750) at Northrop Grumman Ship Systems in Pascagoula, Mississippi
Image copyrighted by BAE Systems




57 mm gun on USCG Bertholf (WMSL 750) being fired on 11 February 2008 during Builder's Trials
This was the first time that the 57 mm gun was fired off a USA ship, with a total of 30 rounds being expended
ICGS Photograph



USS Freedom LCS-1 preparing for trials on 28 July 2008
Lockheed-Martin Photograph released as US Navy Photograph No. 080728-O-XXXXX-008



57 mm Mark 3 on HMCS Ville de Quebec
In the background is HMCS Haida
Photograph copyrighted by Mike Clark and used here by his kind permission




57 mm/70 Bofors Mark 3 (EX 110)
Cutaway view showing general arrangements, ammunition hoists and cassettes
USCG Photograph



Test round being loaded into the breech on USCG Bertholf (WMSL 750)
Note the roomy gunhouse of this mounting and the twin ready use magazines directly above the breech
USCG Photograph titled "57mm"




Comparison of Bofors 57 mm (left) and 40 mm guns
 

Justin

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30 mm (1.2") Bushmaster II Mark 46 Mod 1
40 mm (1.57") Bushmaster II

The 30 mm Bushmaster II is derived from the proven 25 mm M242 Bushmaster automatic weapon. This next-generation member of the Chain Gun®family applies the same design simplicity, positive round control, ease of maintenance and constant velocity ammunition feed of the battle-proven Bushmaster cannon. The Mark 46 system is a navalized version of the gun used on the Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAAV) and on the San Antonio LPD-17 class.
The larger 30 mm Bushmaster II incorporates 70 percent of the logistic parts used in the 25 mm M242 Bushmaster, offering operators low-risk, proven performance and NATO common parts supply. The production barrel will be chrome plated for extended life.

The mounting for this weapon will be shared with the Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) - formerly known as the Advanced Attack Amphibious Vehicle (AAAV) - being built for the US Marine Corps.

From the LPD-17 website: "The Mk 46 30 mm gun system is a two-axis stabilized chain gun that can fire up to 250-rounds per minute. The system uses a forward looking infrared sensor, a low light television camera, and laser range finder with a closed-loop tracking system to optimize accuracy against small, high-speed surface targets. It can be operated locally at the gun's weapon station (turret) or fired remotely by a gunner in the ship's Combat Information Center."

This weapon can be converted to fire 40 mm rounds with a change of barrels and minor changes to the feeder assembly. This conversion can be performed by the ship's crew.

A 15 September 2005 Alliant Techsystems (ATK) Press Release announced that ATK "will provide its proven 30/40mm Mk44 Bushmaster Cannon system to MSI Defence Systems for integration onto its DS30M Mk2 Naval Mounting. The UK Royal Navy (RN) has ordered a total of 26 systems for the new Type 23 Frigate, with deliveries scheduled to begin in late 2006. This is the first time ATK will provide the Bushmaster for use on a RN vessel and it extends the Bushmaster’s reach beyond armored vehicle applications to shipboard use."

These 30 mm weapons replaced the 57 mm Bofors guns planned for the USS Zumwalt DDG-1000 class.


Bushmaster II
Photograph copyrighted by Alliant Techsystems


Installing a Mark 46 Mod 1 weapon system onboard USS San Antonio (LPD-17) in November 2005
This same mounting is used on USS Freedom LCS-1 and planned for the USS Zumwalt DDG-1000 class
US Navy photograph 051026-0-0000B-001


Ammunition for the Bushmaster II
Note that the 40 mm round is the same overall length as the 30 mm rounds, thus simplifying the changeover to the larger caliber
Photograph copyrighted by Alliant Techsystems


30 mm ammunition feed system for Mark 46 Mounting on USS Freedom LCS-1
US Navy photograph 130924-N-PD773-005


Cutaway view of Mark 46 Mounting showing dual-ammunition feed system
Image copyrighted by General Dynamics ATP​
 

Justin

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25 mm/87 (1") Mark 38 Machine Gun System

Also known as the "Bushmaster," this weapon is a navalized version of the "Chain Gun®," an externally-powered weapon developed by Hughes for the US Army as the Mark 242. The name "Chain Gun" derives from the use of a loop of roller chain to drive the bolt back and forth. A single electric motor, located in the receiver group, powers all moving parts for the ammunition feeding, loading, firing, extraction and cartridge ejection operations. The weapon can be fired in both the single-shot mode and in automatic mode.

This gun had a long road to travel to gain acceptance onto USN ships. In 1977 the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) approved their use to replace aging 20 mm Mark 16 guns, which were difficult to maintain and did not use standard NATO ammunition. However, the gun was not operationally evaluated for naval use until the summer of 1987. Then, with the urgent need for such weapons in the Persian Gulf, production of this weapon was greatly accelerated. Much of the necessary work was done at Naval Weapons Support Center Crane which was responsible for the design of the Mark 88 mounting.

The Mark 38 Machine Gun System (MGS) denotes the Mark 242 when mounted on the Mark 88 Single Mounting. The Mark 38 MGS was employed aboard various combatant and auxiliary ships in the Mid-East Force escort operations and during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. The weapons are maintained in a rotatable pool, available for temporary installation on various deploying ships and permanent installation on certain amphibious and auxiliary ships, patrol craft and Coast Guard cutters. In the event of a major malfunction, the gun can be removed from the mount and another one installed in its place in five minutes by two people.

As the Mark 88 is manually trained and lacks stabilization, target tracking is difficult when the MGS is used on a small combatant ship. For this reason, the Navy started a program to develop a low-cost, remotely controlled and stabilized version designated as the Mark 38 Mod 2. Improvements compared to the Mark 38 include an on-mount electro-optical sight, improved ammunition loading, improved man/machine interface, an embedded trainer and ship roll compensation. The new system also provides the capability to have two different ammunition types loaded and selecting between them from the remote console. The remote operator console is a 12-inch (30.5 cm) color LCD equipped with 12 soft keys. The picture on the computer screen is extremely clear, displaying a real-time, 360-degree, 7,000 - 8,000 yard (6,400 - 7,300 m) picture. In 2003, successful testing was conducted aboard the USS Decatur (DDG-73) and USS Howard (DDG-83). USS Princeton (CG-59) was the first ship to have this weapon system permanently installed. Tests on Princeton demonstrated a very robust capability during day and night tracking and firing on a high speed maneuvering surface target (HSMST). During the live fire against the HSMST, the system gained a kill of the target at more than twice the range of the current Mod 1 gun. Other tests have shown a two to three fold increase in Probability of Hit (POH) versus the Mod 1.

In 2004, United Defense received a $395.5 million contract to produce the Mark 38 Mod 2 weapon system. The contract runs through 2010 with the first eight units and spares to be delivered in 2004, 13 in 2005 and 67 in 2006.

The Mark 96 Mod 0 is a two-axis stabilized mounting that contains both a 25 mm M242 chain gun and a 40 mm Mark 19 grenade machine gun. The system combines elements from the Mark 3 Mod 9 and Mark 38 gun mounts to provide a lightweight, low-cost solution to small-caliber gun requirements including a "man-in-the-loop" system for low-intensity combat situations. The operator sits on the mount, which moves to compensate for the pitch and roll of the ship.

Rheinmetall AG has also adapted the M242 for a naval mounting designated as MLG 25.

The USN purchased a total of 243 guns between FY1986 and FY1992.

The Navy is currently investigating adding a 7.62 mm Chaingun to the Mark 38 Mod 2 platform.


Constable 1st Degree Thomas Pedersen of the Danish Navy corvette Niels Juel (F 354) fires a 25 mm Mark 38 MGS aboard USS Anzio CG-68 in June 2002
U.S. Navy Photograph No. 020612-N-0872M-502




25 mm Mark 38 on USS Peleliu LHA-5 in October 2001
U.S. Navy Photograph No. 011011-N-1523C-003




25 mm Mark 38 aboard USS Fort McHenry LSD-43 in December 2004
U.S. Navy Photograph No. 041210-N-2970T-003




25 mm Mark 38 gun crew firing at a "killer tomato" aboard USS Curtis Wilbur DDG-54 in January 2006
Note the large piles of links
U.S. Navy Photograph No. 060112-N-2385R-194



Remotely Controlled and Stabilized 25 mm Mark 38 Mod 2
Photograph copyrighted by United Defense



Performing maintenance to a 25 mm Mark 38 Mod 2 gun system aboard USS Lake Champlain CG-57 in January 2009
The tube above the gun barrel is the spent cartridge ejecter port
U.S. Navy Photograph No. 090129-N-4774B-007




Mark 96 Mounting with 40 mm Mark 19 Grenade launcher on top and 25 mm Cannon on bottom
Photograph copyrighted by United Defense




Operations Specialist 2nd Class Matthew Burton manning a Mark 96 on USS Chinook PC-9 in March 2003
Note the feed mechanism for the Mark 19 Grenade Launcher
U.S. Navy Photograph No. 030321-N-0000G-009



MLG 25 showing dual-ammunition feed
Photograph copyrighted by Rheinmetall AG



25 mm M793 TP-T ammunition (target practice rounds with tracer) aboard USS Lake Champlain CG-57 in January 2009
U.S. Navy Photograph No. 090129-N-4774B-008​
 

Justin

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20 mm/76 Phalanx Mark 15
Close-in Weapon System (CIWS)




Close-in Weapon Systems (CIWS - usually pronounced "see-whiz") are designed to engage anti-ship cruise missiles and fixed-wing aircraft at short range. Phalanx is the most numerous CIWS in the world and has been exported to many other countries. Like other close-in weapon systems, Phalanx provides ships with a terminal defense against anti-ship missiles that have penetrated other fleet defenses.

Phalanx is very much a self contained system requiring minimal deck space and wiring. Unlike many other CIWS, which have separate, independent systems, Phalanx combines search, detection, threat evaluation, acquisition, track, firing, target destruction, kill assessment and cease fire into a single mounting.



First operational Phalanx Mounting aboard USS King DLG-10 (later DDG-41)
Photograph courtesy of Dan Lamkin of NAVSEA and Mark Donovan, Ship Historian, USS King Association




Phalanx Block 1B
US Navy Photograph




Reloading a CIWS aboard USS Theodore Roosevelt CVN-71 in May 1998
US Navy Photograph No. 990528-N-2003S-002-TR212




Loading ammunition into a Phalanx mounting on USS George Washington CVN-73 in January 2004
The join-line of the sabot can be clearly seen in this picture
US Navy Photograph No. 040122-N-3986D-002




Lifting a Phalanx CIWS onto USCG Bertholf (WMSL 750) at Northrop Grumman Ship Systems in Pascagoula, Mississippi
USCG Photograph



Diagram copyrighted by Raytheon



Cross-section of Mark 149 APDS Round
Sketch copyrighted by General Dynamics Company



Dimensional Sketch of Mark 149 Round



Evolution of Phalanx Systems
Sketch copyrighted by Raytheon
 

jdzla

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Gunships were made relatively obsolete by the advent of aircraft. However, they still remain a very economical contender for amphibious support (coastal bombardment). This is evidenced by the debate stirred by the decomissioning of the Iowa-class battleships for the US Navy. Essentially, decomissioning the battleships have made the USN less capable of supporting amphibious operations or providing fire support from the sea. The economy of using naval guns vs missiles here is a big consideration. Substitutes like air superiority is also seen but I do believe that it is best to keep options open.
 

phoenix2015

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I think the huge gunships that were made back in the cold war are awesome pieces of machinery. While they aren't very useful nowadays, what are your opinions on them?
I'm with you on that. I have the sneaking suspicion that the days of massive firepower on naval vessels may be numbered, when dealing with technologically advanced militaries anyway. If a country has the air defense systems to protect its naval fleet, then all is well, but what happens when a weapon is invented that can surpass those systems. Yikes! That may be happening with hypersonic missile technology. I'm not sure how precise they can be, but it is still pretty scary stuff.
 

ke gordon

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76/62 Super Rapid Multi Feeding (SRMF)


The 76/62 Super Rapid (SR) Gun Mount is a light weight, rapid-fire naval gun providing unrivalled performance and flexibility in any air defence and anti surface role, particularly in anti-missile role.

Capability for very effective engagement of shore based targets is also provided for unique multi-role performance.

The 76/62 SR is suitable for installation on ships of any type and class, including small naval units.
Interface to a large variety of ship's Combat Management System and/or FCS/EOS is provided, according to digital as well as analogical standard, including open architecture.
The Firing rate can be selected from single shot to firing 120 rds/min.

In operational condition the tactical time is less than 3 seconds and the standard deviation at firing is less than 0.3 mrad, thus providing excellent accuracy.

The 76/62 SR (together with the 76/62 Compact) is the only medium caliber naval gun available in the capable of sustained fire, which is a fundamental requirement in any scenario involving the simultaneous engagement of multiple maneuvering target, as requested by the emerging asymmetric warfare scenarios.

Automatic loading is provided through a revolving magazine and rapid reloading is easily undertaken even during firing action by two ammunition handlers.

Standard supply includes the new Digital Control Console (DCC) capitalizing the digital technology to increase the functions available to the operator and to the maintainers.
The 76/62 SR is ready for operating the OTO Melara 3AP Multifunction Programmable Fuse.
The in service and new 76/62 SR, have the necessary flexibility for being fitted with optional:

  • Integral Stealth Shield to reduce the total RCS of the ship
  • Muzzle Velocity Radar to update the FCS of eventual deviations from range table values
  • Multi Feeding Device for the automatic handling, selection and feeding of any type of ammunition loaded
  • STRALES system – a guidance system for the DART guided projectile.

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This is one of the most advanced weapons I have seen lately. This is one of the reasons that we have unsurpassed poer in the Navy. Yes, we have great weapons, but I really question their usefulness at this point. When and where do we plan on using them? I don't think the terrorists have a navy. Oh well...I guess it makes people feel more secure.
 

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