The LHC the most ambitious proyect of the human kind

Anonymous

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There's more to CERN than the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). A series of accelerators work together to push particles to nearly the speed of light

The accelerator complex at CERN is a succession of machines that accelerate particles to increasingly higher energies. Each machine boosts the energy of a beam of particles, before injecting the beam into the next machine in the sequence. In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) – the last element in this chain – particle beams are accelerated up to the record energy of 4 TeV per beam. Most of the other accelerators in the chain have their own experimental halls where beams are used for experiments at lower energies.

The proton source is a simple bottle of hydrogen gas. An electric field is used to strip hydrogen atoms of their electrons to yield protons. Linac 2, the first accelerator in the chain, accelerates the protons to the energy of 50 MeV. The beam is then injected into the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), which accelerates the protons to 1.4 GeV, followed by the Proton Synchrotron (PS), which pushes the beam to 25 GeV. Protons are then sent to the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) where they are accelerated to 450 GeV.

The protons are finally transferred to the two beam pipes of the LHC. The beam in one pipe circulates clockwise while the beam in the other pipe circulates anticlockwise. It takes 4 minutes and 20 seconds to fill each LHC ring, and 20 minutes for the protons to reach their maximum energy of 4 TeV. Beams circulate for many hours inside the LHC beam pipes under normal operating conditions. The two beams are brought into collision inside four detectors – ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb – where the total energy at the collision point is equal to 8 TeV.

The accelerator complex includes the Antiproton Decelerator and the Online Isotope Mass Separator (ISOLDE) facility, and feeds the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) project and the Compact Linear Collider test area, as well as the neutron time-of-flight facility (nTOF).

Protons are not the only particles accelerated in the LHC. Lead ions for the LHC start from a source of vaporized lead and enter Linac 3 before being collected and accelerated in the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR). They then follow the same route to maximum energy as the protons.

Here is a video that explains how it works:


Also, Chinese plans to create a even bigger LHC

here is a small preview:

Scientists at the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) in Beijing, working with international collaborators, are planning to build a ‘Higgs factory’ by 2028 — a 52-kilometre underground ring that would smash together electrons and positrons. Collisions of these fundamental particles would allow the Higgs boson to be studied with greater precision than at the much smaller Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Europe’s particle-physics laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland.

Physicists say that the proposed US$3-billion machine is within technological grasp and is considered conservative in scope and cost. But China hopes that it would also be a stepping stone to a next-generation collider — a super proton–proton collider — in the same tunnel.

European and US teams have both shown interest in building their own super collider, but the huge amount of research needed before such a machine could be built means that the earliest date either can aim for is 2035. China would like to build its electron–positron collider in the meantime, unaided by international funding if needs be, and follow it up as fast as technologically possible with the super proton collider. Because only one super collider is likely to be built, China’s momentum puts it firmly in the driving seat.
 
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Have they managed to exploit the power of LHC close to 100 in order to want a bigger one? I do not see a point in building a bigger one (especially that it took so many years to put up) if you cannot fully exploit your current one as well.
 

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The current one at Switzerland/France is always in continuous updating, by example they work with it for 2 years and then stop for 5 to update it, not in size, but in computer power, sensor improvement and that kind of stuff, maybe now they have realized that a bigger one, would help them to gather more data on each experiment, we'll have to wait to new official announcements to know why the Chinese want a bigger LHC and what are the key capabilities.
 
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Did not know that, but it's good they are updating it every once in a while. It could be a key investment in physics and the results they gave so far are amazing.
 
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