US Navy Strategies, Operations and Policy | World Defense

US Navy Strategies, Operations and Policy

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US Navy Strategies, Operations and Policy



This study was conducted to explain the fundamental principles of US Navy policies, strategies, plans and operational capabilities in times of peace, crisis and war .
Definition of Army and Navy by the United States
  • The United States is a country of law. The President is the head of the army and navy, so the navy acts in accordance with the President's directives, not independent.
  • Since its establishment, the United States has been using the Navy to ensure national security. The Navy has been involved in all wars. The navy is also used as a tool in American diplomacy and economic policy.
  • The United States navy rarely acts without allies. During the War of Independence, he used France, the Netherlands and Spain as an advanced base against Britain. During the First World War, Britain and other allies acted together in the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean. In the Second World War, he established the closest relationship with Britain, possibly in alliances known so far (on a Navy basis). During the Cold War, he established close relations with his allies in the Free World.
  • Depending on its location, it uses the United States Navy mainly on advanced bases and offshore.
  • The US navy review reflects a specific process scope and is divided into three: Peace Time Preparedness & Engagement, Crisis Response, and Combat.

USS Cark Wilson Aircraft Carrier | Basra Bay

1) Peace Time Preparation & Engagement
Objective: It is the
priority of the United States navy to protect the security, freedom and welfare of the American homeland, its people and its allies in peacetime.
Roads and Tools: In order to achieve these objectives, the President and the Ministry of Defense are used in various tasks such as deterrence in peace time, assuring allies, preparing for possible wars. In peacetime, the Navy serves the nation and the international community for eight main purposes: strategic nuclear deterrence, ballistic missile defense, conventional crisis and war deterrence, maritime security operations, maritime security operations, humanitarian operations, navy diplomacy, support for science. The capacity of the navy in all these areas allows the President, the Ministry of Defense and the top commanders to carry out national policy.
A) Strategic Nuclear Deterrence

Ohio Class USS Maryland (SSBN 738) Nuclear Attack Submarine | US Navy- Eric Tretter

National strategic nuclear policy and attitude is particularly aimed at deterring possible Russian and/or Chinese strategic nuclear attacks against the United States and its allies/partners. There are two main elements in the United States national strategic nuclear deterrence policy; Ohio-class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBN) and E-6B are Mercury airborne command aircraft. United States SSBN and SLBM programs take place in close cooperation with the United Kingdom. The UK supports this association with 4 Vanguard Class submarines.

E6B Mercury airborne command control aircraft | Matt Varley [163918]

B) Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD)
The top commanders of the United States routinely deploy cruisers and destroyers (in the North Pacific, the Persian Gulf, the Eastern Mediterranean) capable of ballistic missile defense capabilities connected to the 5th, 6th and 7th fleet and to deploy it to deter possible ballistic missile attacks against the Allies or directly against US elements.


USS Jason Dunham
Several friendly and allied navy - Spain, the United Kingdom, Australia, the Netherlands, Germany, Japan and South Korea - deploy similar marine-deployed anti-ballistic missile (EIC) systems. The United States navy often conducts joint operations with these allies. As part of the EPAA ballistic missile defense, the United States has had a coastal base in Romania since 2014.
C) Prevention of Conventional Crises and Wars
-Preparation

The principal task of the United States navy in peacetime is to prevent possible crises and wars. This role is provided by experienced personnel, material and operational vigilance, forces deployed in the field ready for war and ready to fulfill the directives from the President. Operational elements deal with intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance (ISR) tasks, as well as exercise and development activities. All these maritime operations are carried out in accordance with long-standing international law.

7th Fleet of the US Navy
These methods and objectives contribute to the prevention of crisis and war in peace time with the 5th and 7th fleets in the United States, the Indian Ocean and the Western Pacific. These fleets are the most prepared, balanced and conventional power capacity for war in the United States navy. In the absence of crisis and war missions, these advanced preventive forces help maintain peace and stability in the region. The continuity of the forces in the region is provided in various ways, such as ship and crew rotation.
Aircraft carrier strike force (CSG), ships under ballistic missile defense patrol, amphibious ready groups (ARG), marines expedition groups (MEU) and submarine groups continue to be permanently and readily available in the area with reinforcements from the United States homeland (CONUS). In addition, the American base on the island of Diego Garcia is an important accommodation.
Diego Garcia
CSG, ARG / MEU, submarines, mine warfare vessels (affiliated to the 7th fleet) are largely located in advanced bases in Japan and Guam. Coastal combat ships (LCS) are deployed on top of one another in Singapore.
The 6th fleet of the United States is permanently deployed in European and African waters. 6. Fleet also has flagship and maritime patrol aircraft. As mentioned before, in this way the ballistic missile defense capability was obtained in the Eastern Mediterranean. The navy periodically passes from the Mediterranean to the Arabian Sea, and exercises are conducted with the European and North African navy.
- Rebalancing
Since the end of the Cold War, the geographic focus of the US Navy's advanced presence has changed. The North Pacific is still important, even more so, but the American presence in the Arabian and adjacent seas has gained more importance than before. In particular, Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Inherent Resolve proved this trend. In addition, the presence of the United States Navy in Atlantic and European waters decreased with the disappearance of the Soviet threat. Even though the modern 6th Fleet was smaller than its presence in the Cold War, its area of responsibility increased, extending beyond the Mediterranean. New Foundland, Bermuda, Iceland, United Kingdom, United States The closure of their bases in Sardinia can be read as an indication of this. The current rebalancing zones are emerging in Southwest Asia in the Western Pacific rather than Atlantic and Western European waters. Although the United States' presence in Europe has remained the same for years, the importance given to the base in Spain is increasing.
- Force Protection
The peacekeeping attitude of the United States Navy for wartime is in the direction of force conservation inside and outside. In 2000, Al Qaeda struck the destroyer USS Cole (DDG-67), which was refueling in Aden Port of Yemen, with a guided missile, revealing the importance of force conservation even in peacetime. The United States navy then changed its rules of engagement (RoE). The Navy has established closer relations with the Criminal Research Service.
-Experience
The ongoing US navy experience is in the form of a fleet, but today requires challenging decisions. The United States navy, alternating between the two options, has to choose whether to maintain deterrence or to wage a war that will occur. For the time being, the Navy is looking forward to presence in the seas and encouraging new developments if successful. The Sea Shadow (IX-529) experimental ghost ship is an important example of this.
ENTRIES financing
Most of the operations are carried out in engagement with other navy and armed forces. The United States navy needs and is operating with a wide range of partners. The navy engagement has proved that navy meets the vital needs of a crisis or war situation, as well as peacetime that ensures international relations and international security. Bilateral and multiple exercises mean the ability to cooperate with allied and/or friendly navies and build professional relationships. The following are the periodic exercises with bilateral and multiple participants:
  • NATO exercises in Europe: Noble Justification, Proud Manta and Brilliant Mariner
  • Joint Warrior performed with the United Kingdom
  • BALTOPS performed in the Baltic Sea
  • Sea Breeze performed by navy in the Black Sea
  • Noble Diana performed with Israeli and Greek navy in the Mediterranean
  • Phoenix Express performed with North African navy
  • Cutlass Express with East African navy
  • Obangame Express with West African-European-Brazilian navy
  • International Mine Countermeasures Exercise (IMCMEX) in Basra Korfez
  • Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) and Southeast Asia Cooperation Against Terrorism (SEACAT) in Southeast Asia
  • Balikatan and PHIBLEX performed in the Philippines
  • Malabar performed by the Indian Navy in the Indian Ocean
  • Talisman Saber performed in the Southwest Pacific
  • Cobra Gold performed with Thailand
  • Naval Engagement Activities in Vietnam
  • Foal Eagle and Ulchi Freedom performed in Korea
  • Keen Edge performed with Japan
  • Pacific Bond with Australia and Japan
  • Chilemar performed with the Chilean Navy
  • PANAMAX, which is implemented to ensure the security of passage in the Panama Canal
  • Southern Partnership Station with Latin American and European navy
  • Trident Fury performed in Canada and the Pacific
  • Rim of Pacific (RIMPAC) performed in Hawaii
  • Bold Alligator

United States warship joining Foal Eagle
Other obligations include port visits, staff exchange, staff meetings, exercises, and for the purpose of acquisition/research between the United States and its partner/allies. The United States navy routinely hosts staff and volunteer students from allied / partner countries in their schools and exercises. Since 1969, the Navy's Chief Operating Officer (CNO) has been hosting the International Naval Force Symposium (ISS) at Naval War College in Newport. In the period of 2011, naval commander / representatives of 155 countries participated.

TCG Gaziantep frigate and USS Donald Cook warship joint training
In the case of NATO allies and Korea, the naval structure has been integrated since the Cold War. Common NATO doctrines, tactics / techniques and procedures are implemented extensively and routinely with the participation of several non-NATO navy, helping to promote international joint work.
Long-term NATO institutions enable sustainable and integrated operations and maneuvers of NATO members in the United States, Canada and the European states and in the Balkan / Baltic. The United States considers and encourages multinational activities necessary for future international naval coalitions.

To date, no such large and comprehensive alliance has emerged. The United States is also integrated with other multinational collaborations. The United States navy promotes a tripartite naval approach, in particular the United States / Japan / South Korea. Another example is cooperation between the United States / Japan / Australia navy. In addition, drills are carried out in the Navy of Ukraine and Georgia and the Black Sea.
BALTIC SEA NATO Drill
Brazil is a traditional navy ally of the United States. The two navy are war allies in both world wars. This alliance continued during the Cold War. The US Navy hopes to continue cooperation as it moves from Brazil to a significantly larger power category.
During the Cold War, the Soviet navy was the greatest potential threat to the United States navy, and the US navy policies, strategies, tactics, and equipment focused mainly on the Soviet navy. Until the Ukraine crisis in 2014, many of the United States' allies and partners were in cooperation with the Russian navy. The Russian Navy participated in the post-Cold War exercises FRUKUS annually with the United States, France and the United Kingdom. It should also be said that participation in BALTOPS exercises and INCSEA summits has been achieved. The Russian Navy was represented at the 2011 International Naval Forces Symposium (ISS) organized by the United States, the 2012 BALTOPS exercise and the 2012 RIMPAC exercises.

Russia and the United States fleets held anti-piracy drills in the Arabian Sea along with many other countries. Prior to 2014, United States navy ships were visiting Vladivostok and other ports.
The United States navy also maintains peace-time cooperation with the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN). As mentioned earlier, the United States navy is no stranger to the Chinese Sea. The United States used its 7th fleet, Tsingtao, from 1945 to 1949 as an advanced operational base. Mutual port visits took place in the 1980s and continued unevenly. PLAN warships acted in conjunction with the navy of the United States and other western states in the Arabian Sea in anti-piracy operations.
In September 2013, the United States Pacific fleet hosted three PLAN warships in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and held drills in Hawaiian waters. PLAN officers visited the United States in October 2013, and in 2014 the US Navy Chief visited China. In 2014, the PLAN participated in the RIMPAC exercise organized by the United States. Nevertheless, the US navy's convergence with China remains a forced move, as the 1201 section of the US Defense Authorization Act limits military cooperation with China.

Only a handful of countries have not engaged with the United States. North Korea is a prime example. Moreover, there has been no formal engagement with Iran, and the Navy avoids confrontation, especially in the Strait of Hormuz.
 

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D) Maritime Security
The United States also plays an important role in this area. As with other subjects, it cooperates with international partners. One of the important roles in the field is the submarine evacuation and rescue. The International Submarine Escape and Rescue Contact Office, established in Norfolk, Virginia in 2003 with the assistance of NATO's International Submarine Escape and Rescue Contact Office, receives significant support from the United States navy.
Ships belonging to the US and German Navy in the Persian Gulf
The foundation of this organization is based on a tragic event; Sinking of the Russian submarine Kursk (K-141) submarine in 2000. ISMERLO complies with navies and equipment and procedures to help rescue destroyed submarines around the world. In addition, the United States, which is a member of the Asia Pacific Submarine Conference (APSC), is another initiative.
E) Maritime Security Operations
Since the end of the Cold War, US rulers and the Department of Defense have been demanding more than preparing the US navy for global or regional wars. In response, the United States navy has become more complex with extensive steps to ensure peace-time maritime security. The operations carried out here are drug operations in the Caribbean, operations against piracy in the Arabian Sea, and operations against terrorist activities globally, but especially in the Arabian Sea and the Mediterranean. These operations are generally carried out in conjunction with the coast guard and navy of the United States and other foreign states. In addition, the Security Initiative Against the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (PSI) is also included. Warships, amphibious ships, maritime police aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles are vital for carrying out the mentioned maritime security operations. Seizure and confiscation operations (VBBS) are carried out by the SEAL and the coast guard from the ship, various vehicles or helicopters, depending on the situation. Advanced navies generally join the United States with equivalent equipment and vehicles, exhibiting almost the same capabilities. Developing navies, on the other hand, often participate in complementing these navies to develop their own capabilities. from various vehicles or helicopters. Advanced navies generally join the United States with equivalent equipment and vehicles, exhibiting almost the same capabilities. Developing navies, on the other hand, often participate in complementing these navies to develop their own capabilities. from various vehicles or helicopters. Advanced navies generally join the United States with equivalent equipment and vehicles, exhibiting almost the same capabilities. Developing navies, on the other hand, often participate in complementing these navies to develop their own capabilities.
In 2006, the US Navy established the Naval Expeditionary War Command to expand and develop maritime security operations capacity, diving and rescue capabilities, port patrols, and above-surface operations. This command also performs the destruction of explosive equipment, power protection operations, expedition logistics support, regional security operations. The United States also conducts maritime security operations with partners and allies, including:
  • Operation Active Endeavor within NATO in the Mediterranean
  • Malacca Strait Ship Safety Operations
  • Africa Partnership Station (APS)
  • Southern Partnership Station (SPS) in Latin America
  • Operation Martillo in the Caribbean / East Pacific
  • Operations Against Piracy Activities in the Arabian Sea
In this section we will talk about the most remarkable operations. There are no ships, seafarers or planes of the United States only in accordance with the resolutions of the United Nations. In addition, there are NATO, the European Union, Russia, India, China and numerous countries. In addition to securing merchant ships for the protection of international trade, looting attempts by Somali pirates are prevented. Combined Task Force (CTF 151) was established with the command of the participating countries.
F) Humanitarian Relief Operations
The Navy's humanitarian operations have a common ground in internationally bringing together many states, albeit late. But this is not new to the United States. The United States Coast Guard has been conducting such operations for years. The United States extends a helping hand to communities in need of emergency assistance due to natural disasters or human-induced problems. Since the Cold War, such operations have been carried out with two hospital ships and one amphibious ship.

United States Navy staff providing health services

G) Navy Diplomacy
States, including the United States, use their navy as an instrument of peace-time foreign policy. The United States navy is waving the flag of the country in various seas and ports in peacetime, giving messages to the opponents of trust in their foreign policy friends. In addition, the right to innocent passage is used in the framework of international law and foreign policy is diversified. In this respect, the navy is used as a foreign policy instrument.
H) Support to Science
Warships, airplanes and weapons systems are all closely related to science and technology. The United States has therefore been diligent throughout its history for the continuation of scientific developments. Many fields such as metallurgy, ballistic missile technologies, aircraft science, nuclear engineering, meteorology or marine science are supported. Even if it is not directly related to the navy, such studies support the benefit of science.
For many years, the Navy has supported research in the Arctic within the framework of American policies. There is also naval support for astronauts in space.
- Force Protection
Even in peacetime, there are situations that may pose a threat to the United States navy. Terrorism, intelligence gathering and cybercrime are the main ones. The United States Navy is working with the Navy Criminal Research Service (NCIS), the Coast Guard and other elements to address these threats.
2) Crisis Intervention
Objective: Peacetime operations are expected to be useful for solving the problem when a crisis occurs. The Defense Department and joint war commanders hope that the navy will be ready at the time of the crisis, offer a wide range of options, create solutions, act in line with American interests, and cooperate with allies of the same mind when needed. Flexibility, scalability, mobility, and multi-choice response capacity should enable the President to strengthen his hand during the crisis and to make warranty calculations.
Roads and Vehicles
A) Engagement and Crisis Intervention

When the crisis arises, the coalition of the United States and voluntary countries of the same mind will come together under the auspices of the United Nations. If the naval engagement established in peacetime has been successful, the navy of the United States and other states will be ready to cooperate effectively in crisis conditions. This joint entity will know the capabilities and capabilities of each of its allies. They will know how to communicate with each other quickly and safely, the distribution of tasks among themselves, reviewing the choices of political leaders, and how to implement the coalition's directives in difficult crisis conditions.
B) Positioning
Political leaders try to neutralize, stabilize and solve the problems at the time of the crisis. We can illustrate the fact that the United States sent two aircraft carrier missions to the Taiwan Strait in 1996, sent warships to the Black Sea during the 2008 Russian-Georgian War, and again appeared in the Black Sea due to the Ukrainian crisis in 2014.
C) Advanced Marine Power and Crisis Response
Some regions are more likely to influence the United States than any other crisis in any crisis. In addition to ensuring regional stability and order with the Allies, permanent forward naval bases will benefit the United States and the Allies in times of crisis.

F / A-18C Hornet fighter aircraft landing on USS Eisenhower aircraft carrier | Bay of Aden

During the Cold War, the 6th and 7th fleets were deployed in the Eastern Mediterranean, the Black Sea, the Western Pacific, and adjacent seas to ensure timely response to crises. This mission continues with the 5th and 7th fleets in the post-Cold War era. The 6th fleet, on the other hand, continues to play an important role in the Eastern Mediterranean as well as the material downsizing. With the chemical arms crisis in Syria in 2013 and the Ukrainian crisis in 2014, the importance of the fleet was once again proven.
D) Avoiding Unwanted Accidents at Sea
The United States navy has to appease crises, as well as to prevent any crisis from being accidentally or deliberately fueled or caused. To this end, US navy personnel receive training on rights and responsibilities under the Law of War and Maritime Law. In this context, 'Incidents at Sea' (INCSEA), which was signed between the United States Navy and the Soviet navy in 1972 and is still valid, is an example of agreements signed with other countries for the same purposes. In addition, the United States Naval Operations Authority signed the 'Principles for Unplanned Encounters' (CUES) agreement at the North Pacific Navy Symposium (WPNS) in China in 2014 and became a party to the agreement.
E) Informal Evacuation (NEO)
The United States navy is partially eligible for informal evacuation in crisis conditions. This was demonstrated in Liberia in 2003 and in Lebanon in 2006. Such operations are often carried out in situations where air or land transport is difficult and dangerous.
F) Disaster Response
United States Navy and coast guard have been responding to natural disasters or human-induced crises for many years. These operations ensure that emergency needs are delivered to the victims as quickly as possible. The tsunami in Asia in 2004, the hurricane in Bangladesh in 2007, the earthquake in Haiti in 2010, the tsunami in Japan in 2011, the typhoon in the Philippines in 2013, the ferry disaster in Korea in 2014 The United States navy quickly delivered urgent needs to the region.
Hospital ship USNS Comfort
Elements of the United States navy, which are deployed and easily deployed, provide assistance based on availability, readiness, capability of helicopter operations, and medical assistance.
G) Special Crisis Intervention
The use of container ship MV Cape Ray in the US Navy to deactivate chemical weapons in Syria in 2014 represents an example of the use of marine-based vehicles.
H) Crisis Response Characteristics of the United States Navy
  • Global preparation for war and redeployment / changing positions,
  • Ability to respond to natural disasters or human-induced crises,
  • Increasing or decreasing force for appropriate force intervention,
  • Access to coalition forces from inside and outside the region as a result of well established and experienced allied naval relations,
  • Command structure that can adapt to joint directives, participation of sub-units and rapid state changes,
  • Flexible, experienced, educated and well-prepared leaders; it has the capacity to manage rapidly developing, complex, serious crises in a way that supports American diplomacy.
3) BATTLE
Objective: The expectation of the President and the American people from the US Navy is to prevent, resist, defeat, defeat and defeat the attacks against the United States and its allies in time of war.
- Peace Time Engagement and Coalition War
In the event of a crisis, the United States and the states of the same opinion come together under the auspices of the UN or as part of the alliance voluntarily. If peacetime activities have been successful, the United States and other state navies will be ready to operate effectively together during the war. As in the time of the crisis, each of them will again know the capabilities and capacity of others, be aware of how to communicate quickly and safely with each other, share tasks among themselves, political leaders will review all options and fulfill the directives under difficult times of war.
Roads and Vehicles: When discussing the ways and means for the US navy to succeed in the naval battle in the interests of the nation, it would be most useful to examine the phases of the battlefield.

* Battlefield: If the United States navy wants to win a war, it must develop its skills necessary in thirteen fields. The superiority of these thirteen zones in the battlefield will help the US navy defeat rival navy. If we list these fields, they will be as follows;
  • Attack Warfare
  • Amphibious Battle
  • Naval Special Battle
  • Submarine Defense War
  • Air Defense War
  • Ballistic Missile Defense
  • Over Water Defense War
  • Blockade
  • Mine War
  • Battle of the Navy
  • Naval Electronic Warfare
  • Ship Protection
  • Strategic Maritime Transportation
1) Attack Warfare
In the attack war, sea-based air attack vehicles, land-attack missiles, naval firepower is used. Sensitivity is very important. The main naval attack aircraft F / A-18 Hornet attacks by naval aircraft carriers. The use of air force in the Navy has increased considerably thanks to tanker aircraft of the United States Air Force.
Tomahawk shot from USS Philippine Sea (CG 58)
For ground attacks, Tomahawk Ground Attack Missile (TLAM) is used first. These sensitive, long-range, all-weather Tomahawk missiles can be fired from nuclear-powered submarines, guided-missile submarines, cruisers and destroyers. The specified cruisers and destroyers provide sea surface firing support (NFSF) against land targets with these capabilities. In addition, the elements of the United States and the allied states are able to operate in coordination with the navy.
2) Amphibious Warfare
In this form of combat, US forces are taken to the enemy shore to undertake raid, distraction, unity / civil evacuation, or other amphibious missions by means of naval support. The navy serves with three types of amphibious ships. These are amphibious assault ships (LHD), pooled landing ships (LPD) and pooled amphibious landing ships (LSD).
Marine close air and fire support is provided by aircraft carriers, cruisers and destroyers, providing the support needed by seafarers in land operations. According to the scope of the operation, the Marines air and land task force (MAGTF) supports / performs the operation with infantry, armored units, artillery, helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft.

The United States Navy has already deployed ships with fleets in the North Pacific and Diego Garcia. In addition, the Marine Corps Air and Land Special Task Forces (SPMAGTFs) were deployed ready for war due to possible negativities such as bad weather conditions.
3) Special Battle of the Sea
The United States Naval Special Combat Command (NSWC) has the ability to dock SEAL teams from US warships, especially guided missile submarines. Small private combat vehicles and Mark V special operation vehicles (SOC), which are included in the inventory of SEAL teams, are frequently used. The relevant unit is the USSOCOM.
Some of the weapons used by the US Navy are critical4) Submarine Defense Warfare (ASW)
Submarine defense warfare is a type of naval combat used in complex, advanced technology. Navy personnel coordinate a wide range of elements, including attack submarines, submarine defense helicopters, guided-missile cruisers and destroyers, land stationed marine patrol aircraft (P-3C and P-8A) and fixed-mobile submarine reconnaissance systems to locate and destroy enemy submarines. must use. Various sonars and listening devices mounted on submarines, planes and ships are used to identify and torpedo enemy submarines.
5) Air Defense Warfare (AAW)
In the air defense warfare, the United States elements use F / A-18 planes, cruisers and destroyer missiles to destroy enemy airborne elements. Some of these missiles were designed to destroy the threat at high altitude and some of them were designed against close air targets. The main system used by cruisers/destroyers in the air defense warfare is the 'Aegis' system. The United States Air Force, Land Forces and Navy have a complementary air defense warfare capability with land-based aircraft and missile systems.
6) Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD)
Ballistic missile defense is based on destroying or defeating ballistic missiles fired by the enemy. Many of the destroyers and cruisers in the United States inventory have ballistic missile defense to protect themselves, other marine elements and the adjacent land area. In this context, 'Aegis' system stands out with its advanced radar and missile technologies. As mentioned earlier, the United States navy attaches great importance to advanced bases in country defense. Accordingly, the United States navy routinely deploys ships with ballistic missile defense to advanced points in peacetime. In addition, there is a land-based 'Aegis' system in Romania.

US Air Defense Network

7) Over Water Defense War (ASUW)
In the classical sense, the above-sea warfare means to neutralize or destroy enemy surface vehicles using warplanes, missiles, cruisers and destroyer-based firepower, ammunition ejected from air elements, other surface vehicles and submarines. The above-sea defense warfare can be applied against enemy navy as well as against merchant ships.
8) Blockade
In the blockade operations, the external connection of the enemy ports is cut. The mobility of merchant vessels offshore is restricted or the use of direct force occurs.
In the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, which confronted Soviet Russia and the United States, the United States navy quarantined Cuba.

During the Vietnam War, the United States Navy deployed thousands of sea mines to blockade ports in northern Vietnam. The embargo was also used during the Dawn of Dawn and United Protector operations against the Gaddafi regime in Libya in 2011 to implement international sanctions. The embargo implications in the future Sino-US war are among the methods discussed.
9) Mine Warfare
Mine warfare involves laying mines into the sea, detecting and neutralizing mines at sea. Navy: capable of placing mines with air elements, surface elements and submarines. Mine countermeasures are managed by Avenger class mine countermeasure (MCM) vessels. The US Navy also uses MH-60S helicopters. In joint operations, the United States does not take much responsibility because of the superior capabilities of its allies.
10) Battle of the Navy Campaign
As mentioned earlier, the naval campaign is a collection of various capabilities. Diving/rescue, port patrol, surface combat, explosive ammunition disposal, force conservation operations, expedition logistics support, field security operations. All these operations/capabilities are carried out within the framework of maritime security operations in order to improve regional security and stability in peacetime. The acquisition of these capabilities provides many benefits for the navy during the war. It is especially important in coastal and rivers. To give an example from history; American civil war, Philippine Uprising and Vietnam War will be appropriate. At this point, with all these capabilities, the naval expeditionary forces are expected to be included as an auxiliary force in battles.

Navy of the Philippines Marine USA, Japanese, Canada and Australia

11) Marine Electronic Warfare
Marine electronic warfare is used to confuse, deceive and blind electronic systems in order to neutralize enemy weapons. Almost every ship and flying element connected to the United States navy has various electronic warfare capabilities. Otherwise, attacks against the enemy will become very difficult or impossible. The United States navy is mainly deploying EA-18G electric offensive aircraft on aircraft carriers.


The EA-18G is an electronic combat aircraft developed over the F / A-18 Super Hornet.

With the addition of EA-18Gs to the fleets, EA-6B AEA aircraft began to retire. The United States used EA-6B aircraft extensively in operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.

12) Ship Protection
Naval control cannot be achieved if battleships cannot protect themselves from enemy attacks. The United States was built with an architecture that allows damage control in case of battleships being hit. Warships have built-in combat systems against torpedoes, cruise missiles and other enemy threats. The United States navy periodically performs exercises to protect navy ships from enemy assault boats. In addition, protection against cyber attacks on ships has started.

On May 17, 1987, Oliver Hazard Perry-class USS Stark (FFG-31) battleship Iraq was hit by more than one French-made anti-ship missile Exocet, but did not sink.

13) Strategic Maritime Transportation
In strategic maritime transport, the Navy aims to carry out operations by signing contracts in order to provide rapid and effective assistance to the units in the war zones. The military and other units are able to transfer war equipment quickly through the United States subsidiary, civil RO-RO vessels, container vessels, and leased merchant ships. With these fleets, the Naval Transport Command aims to transport US sailors, army, air force units and navy cargoes to distant locations such as the North Pacific and Diego Garcia.
The US Air Force performs similar services through the Air Transfer Command (AMC). United States troops are transported to remote areas by military or civilian aircraft.
13-a) Combat Logistics Support
It is characteristic of the United States navy that it can perform both peace and wartime operations on certain criteria, tens of thousands of miles away from North America. This logistical support is fluctuating due to crises and wars, but still continues in a sustainable manner. The United States Navy has benefited greatly from the official and private maritime industries in the homeland, its networks with advanced bases and the Military Transportation and Air Transfer Command.
13-b) Supply at Sea (UNREP)
Most navy ships and civilian crewed logistics vessels are capable of supplying naval ships with US warships. In this way, fuel, food, ammunition, spare parts and other important needs are met and the United States navy ships are ready for war or they meet their needs at wartime. The navy also allocated two submarines stationed in Guam and Diego Garcia in peacetime. These submarines periodically travel to the Philippines, Malaysia, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and India, providing services such as replenishment, maintenance and repair to United States navy submarines deployed in advanced areas, and sometimes to various types of warships. These submarines can also provide support during wartime.
13-c) Navy Intelligence Support
Intelligence, Reconnaissance / Surveillance (ISR), cyber warfare, such as the navy used recently, but a rapidly expanding and developing term. In general, the most difficult aspect of the naval battle is the identification of enemy elements. This process is important for attack and also helps to determine enemy firepower. The Navy has recently established a unit on maritime intelligence and has taken steps to share the requested information with the relevant navy commanders in cryptology, cyber warfare, intelligence systems, intelligence operations and other related special areas.
COMBAT STAGES
It is important to know the three stages that are available, as the United States navy helps to understand the mode of warfare. These are: the transition to the state of war, taking initiative and maintaining the war with the enemy.
A) Transition to War
During this process, the navy forces perform maneuvers to make them advantageous in possible battlefields and work to increase their readiness for battle. Forces in non-enemy areas and forces in or close to the United States participate in elements on the forward front. At this stage, the United States can take advantage of its own power or apply to multinational subsidiaries (eg NATO). Advanced intelligence, reconnaissance/surveillance operations will be intensified. Redeployment of land stationed marine outposts is likely.


Arleigh Burke-class USS Donald Cook (DDG 75) with NATO exercises from the deck of destrıyer Aksaz Naval Base in Turkey
The United States Navy Naval Supply Command will provide the necessary support to the naval, land and air forces in the area through strategic naval supply vessels. The Navy also requests services such as inter-unit cooperation, air defense warfare, missile defense, and satellite, strategic air supply and tanker aircraft support from the air force.
B) Taking the Initiative
The United States Navy seeks to achieve naval dominance as quickly as possible, by neutralizing the airborne elements that are directed at it, and by using warships, submarines, land-based A2 / AD systems, without the pressure of high-level political and military authorities.
Joint tactics and systems were developed to implement the air-naval combat concept, especially in conjunction with the United States Air Force, when necessary at this stage. The anti-ballistic missile ships will perform the most appropriate position within the area and the most appropriate maneuvers to destroy the approaching enemy missiles. The other elements of the navy are ready for war and are transferred to the field in order to support the elements that are currently fighting. If the situation requires an embargo on enemy ports. In addition, cyber-attacks can be carried out within the scope of intelligence operations.
C) Maintaining the War
The United States navy aims to neutralize enemy elements in all areas - land, air, sea, cyber, space - within the framework of the goals set by the President and the allied leaders. Marine control operations shall be continued in line with the purpose of service as long as necessary. The US Navy provides support to aircraft carrier fleets, warships, nuclear submarines capable of launching ballistic missiles and amphibious forces in support of operations on land. If all these operations were successful, the war would end in favor of the United States and its allies.
 
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