Anti Ship Missiles Discussion, news, and technical details thread

Shaheen

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#1
What is an Anti-ship missile?
Anti-ship missile - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Anti-ship missiles (AShM) are guided missiles that are designed for use against ships and large boats. Most anti-ship missiles are of the sea skimming variety, and many use a combination of inertial guidance and radar homing.

When were they first used?
The first anti-ship missiles, which were developed and built by Nazi Germany, used radio command guidance, these saw some success in the Mediterranean Theater in 1943 - 44, sinking or heavily damaging at least 31 ships with the Henschel Hs 293 and more than seven with the Fritz X, such as the Italian battleship Roma or the cruiser USSSavannah. A variant of the HS 293 had a TV transmitter on board. The bomber carrying it could then fly outside the range of naval AA guns and use TV guidance to lead the missile to its target by radio control.

How can you defend against anti-ship missiles?
Countermeasures against anti-ship missiles include:

Modern stealth ships – or ships that at least employ some stealth technology – to reduce the risk of detection and to make them a harder target for the missile itself. These passive countermeasures include:

 

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#2
P-500 Bazalt 4K-80
SS-N-12 Sandbox

SS-N-12 Sandbox is a Russian supersonic speed cruise missile with a range of 550 km carrying a payload of 1,000 kg. The P-350 Bazalt [industrial code 4K-77] was the successor to the P-35 Bazalt, which was started in 1963 and subsequently cancelled. It evolved into the P-500 Bazalt [industrial code 4K-80] which was the production version of the original P-350 Bazalt. Developed to replace the SS-N-3 Shaddock anti- ship missile, it was initially deployed on Kiev-class aircraft carriers in the mid-1970s. The Slava-class cruisers carry an advanced version with an improved sophisticated guidance system, an autopilot that can be programmed for mid-course maneuvers, and an enhanced engine. The P-700 Granat [SSN-19 Shipwreck] was developed as a more successful turbojet alternative to the SSN-12 Sandbox, from which it was derived.

Contractor Chelomey
Entered Service 1973
Total length 11.70 meters
Diameter 0.90 meters
Wingspan 2.60 meters
Weight 5,000 kg
Warhead
  • 1,000 kg high-explosive or
  • 350 kiloton nuclear
Propulsion liquid-fueled rocket
[turbojet according to some sources]
Maximum Speed Mach 2.5
Maximum effective range 550 km
Guidance mode
  • mid-course missile guidance radar on lamuch platform
  • active or passive terminal homing
Circular Error Probable (CEP) 300-700 m
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#3
PJ-10 Brahmos
BrahMos | Missile ThreatPJ-10 | Missile Threat

Possessed By: India, Russia
Alternate Name:PJ-10
Class: Supersonic
Basing:Ship/Ground/Air/Submarine-to-surface
Length:8.2 (SSM)/8.0 m (ASM)
Diameter:0.67 m
Launch Weight:3,000 kg (SSM), 2,200-2,500 kg (ASM)
Payload:300 kg (SSM), 200 kg (ASM)
Warhead:HE SAP or submunitions
Propulsion:Ramjet
Range:300 km (SSM), 500 km (ASM)
Status: Operational
In Service:2005

Su-30MKI with BrahMos
Su-30MKI with BrahMos MRCM.jpg


The BrahMos (PJ-10) is a short-range, ramjet powered, single warhead, supersonic anti-ship/land attack cruise missile developed and manufactured by India and Russia. Ship and ground-launched versions have been produced, and air and submarine-launched versions are under development. Due to its speed and accuracy, the BrahMos is considered one of the most formidable cruise missiles.

The BrahMos, which derives its name from the Brahmaputra and Moscow rivers in India and Russia, is based on the earlier Russian design for the SS-N-26 (3M55 Oniks/Yakhont/Bastion) cruise missile. In 1998, a joint venture was set up between the Indian Defense Ministry’s Defense Research and Development Organization and Russia’s Mashinostroyeniye Company. The two entities formed a company now known as Brahmos Aerospace, which would develop and manufacture the BrahMos PJ-10.

As an anti-ship missile, the BrahMos PJ-10 is distinguished by its reported supersonic speed of Mach 2.8, approximately one kilometer per second. In addition to making it difficult to intercept, this speed also imparts a greater strike power. In comparison, the U.S. RGM/UGM-109 “Tomahawk” cruise missile, which has been used successfully in both Iraq and Afghanistan, operates at a subsonic speed of less than Mach 1.0. Most other anti-ship missiles fly at subsonic speeds as well.

In addition, the BrahMos is equipped with stealth technology designed to make it less visible to radar and other detection methods. The missile also has a high level of accuracy, which has been reported as close as 1 to 5 m CEP. The missile operates on the “fire and forget” principle, meaning that once it has been launched, it will strike its target without requiring any assistance. It has an inertial navigation system (INS) for use against ship targets, and an INS/Global Positioning System for use against land targets. Terminal guidance is achieved through an active/passive radar.

The BrahMos is designed to attack surface targets at altitudes as low as 10 m. The ship and ground-launched versions have a range of 300 km, while the air-launched version has a range of 500 km. The missile is powered by a solid propellant boost motor with a liquid-fuelled ramjet sustainer motor. The ship and ground-launched version is 8.2 m in length, has a body diameter of 0.67 m, carries a 300 kg payload, and has a launch weight of 3,000 kg; the air-launched version is 8.0 m in length, has a diameter of 0.67 m, carries a 200 kg payload, and has a launch weight of 2,200 to 2,500 kg. Both versions have four clipped tip delta wings at mid-body, with four small delta control fins at the rear. The BrahMos carries either a 200 or 300 kg high explosive semi-armor-piercing warhead or a 250 kg submunitions warhead.

The first flight test of the BrahMos PJ-10 took place in June 2001. By April 2007, the missile had been tested at least fourteen times. The first eight tests were against ship targets and ended with the introduction of the missile into the Indian Navy in 2005. Several of the subsequent flights tested the missile against land-based targets and employed land-based launch platforms leading to the missile’s introduction in the Indian Army in 2007.


The missile entered production in 2004. Initial production was probably fairly slow with about 10 to 15 missiles produced per year. It is believed that by 2008 production numbers had increased to around 50 missiles per year. About 360 missiles are expected to be produced for domestic use. Some missiles will also probably be used by Russia. The BrahMos cooperation intends to export the missile rather widely. According to their webpage, they are creating an order book worth $13 billion in BrahMos sales.

BrahMos Ground-launched Variant

The land-based version utilizes the Tatra T816 12 x 12 chassis with a three canister system raised to launch at 45 degrees. The Indian Army adopted the land-based BrahMos in 2007.

BrahMos Air-launched Variant

Flight tests aboard the Su-30 MKI aircraft were scheduled for 2012 with an operational date of 2014/15, but the initial tests have been pushed back until December 2013. The delay is the result of a significantly different BrahMos design including reducing the launch weight by a half a ton, one booster to accelerate the missile instead of two, and modifications to the Su-30 aircraft.

BrahMos Submarine-launched Variant

The submarine-launched variant was expected to begin trials in 2009, but it was reported that there were no submarines available for testing. The first test was expected to occur in the fourth quarter of 2012, but it is unclear if this occurred. 1 The BrahMos submarine variant is launched vertically from a canister at a maximum depth of 40 to 50 m.

Brahmos_imds.jpg
 

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#4
AGM-119 Penguin
AGM-119B Penguin Anti-Ship Missile

https:///pdf/attachments/penguin-jpg.149696/

Primary Function Helicopter launched anti-ship missile.
Contractor Kongsberg Vaapenfabrikk (Norway)
Power Plant Solid propellant rocket motor and solid propellant booster
Length 120.48 inches (3.06 meters)
Launch Weight 847 pounds (385 kilograms)
Diameter 11.2 inches (28.45 centimeters)
Wing Span 30 in's folded, 55 in's Deployed
Range 25 nautical miles / 35 km
Speed 1.2 Mach maximum
Guidance Inertial and infrared terminal.
Warhead 265 lbs gross, 110 lbs High Explosive, semi armor piercing
derivative of the Bullpup missile
Date Deployed Fourth quarter 1993

The Penguin is a helicopter launched anti-ship missile developed for use on Lamps III helicopters and NATO allies. Penguin is the only operational Navy helicopter-launched missile in the Navy's weapon inventory. It provides Navy surface combatants with a defense against surface threats armed with antiship missiles.

The PENGUIN missile is a short-to-medium range inertially guided missile with infrared (IR) terminal homing. The missile consists of a seeker, navigation and control section, warhead,rocket motor, four folding wings and four canards. It is capable of gravity drop launches at low speeds and altitudes. Ships and surfaced submarines are the missiles primary targets. A principal operational advantage of Penguin is its relatively long operational range, which permits a helicopter armed with Penguin to remain outside the launch envelopes of potential targets. ThePenguin missile has an indirect flight path to target. It is also operated in "fire-and-forget" mode to allow multiple target aqusition. The Penguin is fired from a launcher or a stage weighing approximately 1100 pounds (500 kilograms).

The Penguin is a uniquely capable weapon against small combatants and surfaced submarines in the littoral environment. The IR seeker head is effective against a wide range of targets and its profile is hard to defend against. It is a short-to-medium range inertially guided missile and is capable of gravity drop launches at low speeds and altitudes. A "fire-and-forget" missile, the Penguin has a 360 degree arc, autonomous search, acquisition and track during terminal phase, discriminates between target decoys and is resistant to IR countermeasures.

The PENGUIN weapon system consist of the AGM-119B guided missile, Missile Launcher Assembly (MLA), and Missile Control System (MCS). The MLA contains the MCS and attaches to the pylons of the SH-60B LAMPS MKIII Helicopter and provides mechanical attachment points for missile launch/release system a (BRU-14 bomb rack with two AERO-1A adapters). The MLA, with BRU-14 attached, carries and launches the PENGUIN on command. The MCS is an integral part of the MLA. The MCS is located in the MLA and provides the interface between the helicopter and the missile for control, transfer of data, and electrical power during captive flight. The MCS contains the alignment unit,missile power unit, alignment power unit, umbilical release unit, and umbilical and interconnecting cables.

Penguin is a fully digitized missile with canard control. The high resolution, passive infrared seeker provides a high degree of discrimination and target selection, and ensures efficient operation in confined, as well as open waters. The high accuracy, inertial navigation system ensures the missile's capability of target detection, and provides the flexibility of mid-course trajectory via pilot-designated way-point.

An efficient 120 kg warhead, with an impact point close to the target's waterline, will inflict serious damage to medium size surface combatants or other targets. The missile is powered by a solid propellant two stage rocket motor. The Penguin can be adapted to helicopters, fixed wing patrol aircraft as well as fighter aircraft. The missile system is software integrated into the aircraft avionic system. with the use of existing equipment for suspension, control and operation.

The PENGUIN missile is a helicopter launched version of the Norwegian MK 2 MOD 3 missile which has been modified and designated as an MK 2 MOD 7. The Penguin was developed by and for the Norwegian Navy. The Penguin missiles are designed and manufactured by Norsk Forsvarsteknologi (NFT) A/S located in Kongsberg, Norway. The Penguin anti-ship missile was conceived in the early 1960's as a ship-borne, anti-invasion defence system. Penguin was the first fire-and-forget anti-ship missile system to be developed in the Western world. Penguin MKI became operational with the Norwegian and Turkish navies in 1972. The MK2 entered service in 1980 with the Norwegian, Hellenic and Swedish navies. Since then, continuous development programs have adapted the concept to the technical evolution of surface warfare.

The air-launched penguin MK3 version (AGM-119A) was chosen as the standard anti-ship missile for the F-16 Fighting Falcons of the Royal Norwegian Air Force. and has completed a highly successful Foreign Weapon Evaluation Program conducted by the US Air Force. Navy testing of Penguin has been completed, and it achieved IOC in the fourth quarter of FY 1993. The successful first fleet firing of an AGM-119 Penguin anti-ship missile by the HSL-51/USS HEWITT (DD-966) team on June 25, 1994, completed the transition of the SH-60B "Seahawk" from an anti-ship surveillance and targeting (ASST) platform to an anti-surface (ASUW) weapon system. The initial operating capability (IOC) was completed at the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) Barking Sands, Hawaii during RIMPAC '94 with the INDEPENDENCE Battle Group. The direct hit by the telemetry round against the YOG-79 target hulk resulted in the ninth successful Penguin launch by the U.S. Navy. The first eight were completed in 1990 during Techeval/Opeval by Rotary Wing Test Directorate and VX-1. The Navy will acquire approximately 100 Mod 3 versions. The Penguin MK2 MOD7 (AGM-119B) with folding wings is adapted to the US Navy LAMPS Mk III, SH-60B helicopters. All Block I modified SH-60Bs will be capable of employing Penguin, and eventually all SH-60Bs operating from US Navy FFG-7 and DD-963 Class Ships.



The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997 contained a provision that authorized the Navy to enter into a contract for multiyear procurement of not more than 106 Penguin missiles and limited the amount that could be expended for such procurement to $84.8 million. This provision was based on the existing shortfall in Penguin missile inventory and the premise that the Navy would be able to negotiate a very favorable price at around 55 percent of the average unit procurement cost for previous lots. Congress subsequently appropriated $7.0 million to procure Penguin missiles in fiscal year 1997 and $7.5 million in fiscal year 1998.



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agm-119-19990818f16penguin.jpg
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#5
UGM-84 Harpoon(Sub-Launched)
AGM-84 Harpoon(Air-Launched)
RGM-84 Harpoon(Ship-Launched)
RGM-84 Harpoon SSM Mk-141 Mk-16 launcher

The RGM-84 Harpoon is an all- weather, over-the-horizon, anti-ship missile system.

Features:
The Harpoon’s active radar guidance, warhead design, low-level cruise trajectory, and terminal mode sea-skim or pop-up maneuvers assure high survivability and effectiveness. The missile is capable of being launched from surface ships (Mk-141 tube launcher), Mk-16 octuple box-launcher, submarines, shore batteries, or aircraft (without the booster).

Background:
Originally developed for the Navy to serve as its basic anti-ship missile for fleet-wide use. The A/R/UGM-84 was first introduced in 1977, and in 1979 the air-launched version was deployed on the Navy's P-3C Orion aircraft. The Harpoon was also adapted for use on USAF B-52H bombers, which can carry from 8 to 12 of the missiles. The Harpoon missile has been integrated on foreign F-16 aircraft and is presently being integrated on foreign F-15 aircraft. Under a 1998 agreement between Boeing and the Navy, an advanced upgrade to Harpoon missile was developed. This Harpoon Block II missile incorporated Global Positioning System (GPS) - assisted inertial navigation, which enables the system to have both an anti-ship and a land attack capability.

Users:
US Navy, US Air Force and 27 foreign nations.


General Characteristics:
Primary Function:
air, ship, submarine launched anti-ship missile (SSM).
Contractor: The Boeing Company
Date Deployed: 1977
Unit Cost: $1,200,000 for Harpoon Block II
Propulsion: Teledyne Turbojet / solid propellant booster for surface and submarine launch

Thrust: greater than 660 pounds (300 kg)
Length: air launched: 12 feet, 7 inches (3.8 meters); surface and submarine launched: 15 feet (4.6 meters)
Diameter: 13.5 inches (34.3 cm).
Wingspan: 3 feet (91.4 cm) with booster fins and wings.
Weight: 1,523 pounds (690.8 kg) with booster.
Speed: high subsonic.
Range: over-the-horizon, in excess of 67 nautical miles (124 km).
Guidance System: sea-skimming cruise monitored by radar altimeter / active radar terminal homing.
Warhead: penetration / high-explosive blast (488 pounds/224 kg).

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US_Navy_040617-N-0984_Harpoon_missile.jpg


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#6
YingJi-83 (C-803)
YJ-83 / C-803

C-803 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Type Anti-ship missile
Place of origin
China
Service history
In service
Late 1990s - present
Used by China, Bangladesh
Production history
Manufacturer
Norinco
Produced Late 1990s - present
Specifications
Weight
800 kg
Length 6.38 m
Diameter 0.36 m
Warhead 190 kg conventional warhead
Detonation mechanism
Semi-armour piercing
Engine Solid-fuel rocket boost motor Turbojet engine
Propellant Solid fuel (booster rocket)
Liquid fuel (jet engine)
Operational range
250 km
Flight altitude 5 to 20 meters
Speed Subsonic, Mach 0.8-0.9
Guidance system
Infra-Red and MMW radar
Launch platform
Aircraft, ships, ground launchers

The YJ-83 variant has a range of around 135 NMI (250 km), versus the air launched rocket powered YJ-8K 27 NMI (50 km) range, the improved YJ-81 43 NMI (80 km), and the the turbojet YJ-82 (CSS-N-8 Saccade) 65 NMI (120 km). The newly developed YJ-83 anti-ship missile is a further derivative of the Chinese C-802 ASCM. The YJ-83 has a range of 250 kilometers, can receive target data while in flight, and travel at supersonic speeds, making it difficult for ships to defend against. The YJ-83 represents a new capability to conduct over-the-horizon attacks on U.S. and allied naval forces. Chinese military experts believe the YJ-83 "indicates that longer range land-attack cruise missiles are just around the corner." Department of Defense (DOD) officials believe the YJ-83 is part of China's ongoing effort to develop a long-range strike capability against U.S. naval forces, especially aircraft carriers. With its 250-km range, the YJ-83 gives the PLA a new weapon that it can fire from beyond the reach of U.S. Navy defensive systems.

The versatile YJ-83 can be launched from the air, from ships, and from submarine torpedo tubes. In early November 2002, China fired a YJ-83 anti-ship cruise missile from a JH-7 fighter bomber, showing the range of the missile to be about 155 miles. The missile, previously estimated with a range of 75 miles, enables the Chinese military to run "over-the-horizon" attack capability.

The JH-7 can be armed with YJ-83s, both indigenously developed. The JH-7 and YJ-83 combination provides the PLA with a power-projection capability of over 1,900 kilometers, which is more than adequate to cross the Taiwan Strait and put commercial shipping and Taiwan's military facilities at risk. Usually armed with conventional, high-explosive warheads that detonate after penetrating a ship's hull, ASCMs are some of the most potent naval weapons around, packing a punch that gives China a powerful naval force even though it relies on older ships.

Another concern is the PLA's revelation of 25 H-6 cruise missile carriers at the November 2002 Zhuhai Airshow. The H-6s, each armed with four YJ-83s, can perform maritime reconnaissance, enforce a naval blockade around Taiwan, and conduct cruise missile strikes against U.S. bases in Okinawa. The United States will not find it easy to defend its forward bases against this emerging threat. On 3 March 2003, the PLA's Air Force headquarters confirmed that, in keeping with the PLA's strategy that the best defense is a good offense, China had modified its bombers to carry cruise missiles for an offensive capability in the event Taiwan declared its independence.

As of 2009 China was continuing construction of its new.HOUBEI-class (Type 022) wave-piercingcatamaran hull missile patrol boat. More than 40 of these units had already entered service. Each boat can carry up to eight YJ-83 ASCMs. As of 2010 China deployed 60 new Houbei-class (Type 022) wave-piercing missile patrol boats, armed with YJ-83 anti-ship cruise missiles.
rtRYhsz.jpg
 

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#7
Naval Strike Missile(Surface-Launched)
Joint Strike Missile(Air-Launched)
1511286260397.png

NSM
Kongsberg’s New NSM/JSM Anti-Ship & Strike Missile

Kongsberg’s stealthy new Naval Strike Missile (Nytt SjomalsMissil), which continues its development and testing program, has already shown potential in the crowded market for long-range ship attack and shore defense weapons. NSM’s Joint Strike Missile counterpart may have even more potential, as a longer-range air-launched naval and land strike complement to Kongsberg’s popular Penguin short-range anti-ship missile.

The market for anti-ship missiles is a crowded one, and the distinction between anti-ship and precision land strike weapons is blurring fast. Aside from a bevy of Russian subsonic and supersonic offerings, naval buyers can choose Boeing’s GM-84 Harpoon, China’s YJ-82/C-802 Saccade, MBDA’s Exocet, Otomat, or Marte; IAI of Israel’s Gabriel/ANAM, Saab’s RBS15, and more. Despite an ongoing shift toward supersonic missiles, Kongsberg chose not to go that route. So, how do they expect to be competitive in a crowded market? The F-35 Lightning II may hold the key.

The 3.96m/ 13′, 407 kg/ 900 pound, stealth-enhanced Naval Strike Missile aim to be a generation beyond the USA’s GM-84 Harpoon. A rocket booster and Microturbo TRI-40 turbojet power it to a 185+ km/ 100+ nautical mile operational range, which is at the low end of the standards for its class. Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) guidance flies these missiles toward their target, aided by terrain profile matching (TERPROM). Internal programming is designed to create an unpredictable, maneuvering flight path that makes targeting difficult. During the final attack phase, an imaging infrared (IIR) seeker with automatic target recognizer (ATR) is used to refine final approach targeting, which can reportedly include specific features on a ship. Once NSM locks on, it strikes ships or land targets with a 120 kg/ 265 pound titanium warhead and programmable fuze.

Note the lack of a traditional radar seeker head, which is part of the missile’s signature reduction. IIR makes the NSM completely passive, offering no warning from shipboard ESM systems that detect radar emissions. At the same time, its stealthy shape offers little warning from its target’s active radar sweeps. This is a missile optimized at all levels for stealth, making supersonic speed less necessary.

An in-flight data link makes the missile reprogrammable in flight, if its target disappears or a higher priority threat appears.

In order to speed deployment, Kongsberg and the Norwegian government overlapped the NSM’s development phase and its production phase, referred to as the transition phase. That phase was tied to Norway’s commitments to Navantia, with a view to scheduling the NSM’s phase-in on the 4th vessel of Norway’s new Nansen Class AEGIS frigates. That integration is now complete.

To date, NSM has also been chosen for Norway’s Skjold Class air cushion catamaran FACs, and Poland’s land-based coastal defense batteries will use it to defend the country’s narrow Baltic Sea approaches.


JSM
Kongsberg’s New NSM/JSM Anti-Ship & Strike Missile

The air-launched “Joint Strike Missile (JSM)” variant is designed to be carried and launched internally from the F-35 Lightning II fighter’s 2 internal bays (1 missile per bay), or carried on external hardpoints by any aircraft type that has integrated the weapon with its systems. This isn’t quite the same missile, though it shares many characteristics. Kongsberg changed the wings, moved the intake to the missile’s sides, and added other modifications as the missile progresses through the development phase. Size shrinks slightly to 3.7m/ 12’2″, and weight drops to 307 kg/ 677 pounds. Because it’s air launched at speed, range expands to over 280 km/ 175 miles/ 150 nautical miles, with greater range enhancements if launched from higher altitudes.

Development has completed Phase 2, including detail design and integration/ fit checks for the F-18, F/A-18 Super Hornet, and F-35A. Phase 3 will complete development and leave Kongsberg ready for production.

The JSM’s tighter profile has also made it the base for 2 future designs: a submarine-launched variant that can fit inside a 533mm torpedo tube capsule, and a vertically-launched variant that adds a booster for use from strike-length naval vertical launch cells like the Mk.41.

Norway is aiming for a 2020 JSM in-service date, but that may have to involve its F-16s, which have lost their Penguin missiles. F-35A Integration will begin with the fighter’s Block 4 software fit, in 2022 – 2024.

That lateness and forced switch might be a blessing in disguise. JSM would be very appealing to many F-16 customers, and Kongsberg is also hedging its bets by testing JSM on the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. Forced inclusion of other platforms from the outset could create early customer pickup beyond home sales, including existing F-35 prospects like Australia. Later, the prospect of stealth-enhancing internal carriage, plus out of the gate integration with the F-35 Lightning II, give the JSM a strong entry hook for committed F-35 customers like Norway, Australia, The Netherlands, et. al.

Confirmed current export targets include Australia (NSM & JSM), Canada (NSM & JSM), Italy (JSM), and the USA (NSM). A live-fire showcase at the RIMPAC 2014 exercise has the potential to add more Pacific prospects.

Kongsberg’s JSM development partner Lockheed Martin has a similar air-launched land-attack product in its AGM-158 JASSM, which has been developed into the air or sea-launched LRASM. Other competitors exist, from MBDA’s Storm Shadow/Scalp, to Taurus’ KEPD, to Boeing’s anti-ship and land attack SLAM-ER. The JSM’s biggest differentiator would be internal F-35 carriage, which is unique. The other differentiator is its F-35 integration schedule. At present, JSM’s only ranged strike competitor in F-35 Block 4 will be Raytheon’s unpowered AGM-154C-1 JSOW glide bomb.


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#8
Kh-35 (AS-20 Kayak)

Entered service in 1983
Range 5 - 130 km (altitude 10 - 15 m)
Weight 500 - 630 kg
Weight of warhead 145 kg
Type of warhead high-explosive fragmentation
Speed 1 080 km/h
Guidance active radar
Length 3.75 m

Carried by Su-35, Yak-141 fighters;
MiG-27, Su-25, Su-39 attack aircraft;
Ka-28 helicopter; Tu-142 bomber;
various surface ships

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The Kh-35 designated as AS-20 "Kayak" by NATO is an anti-ship cruise missile. It can be used by surface ships and motor boats, costal reconnaissance and strike systems, naval helicopters and aircraft. It should be mentioned that the shipborne surface-to-surface anti-ship version of the Kh-35 is known as "Uran" (uranium) or SS-N-25 "Switchblade" designated by Soviet Union and NATO respectively. Cruise missile is intended to defeat all types of surface ships.

Missile has subsonic flight speed. It is propelled by the main turbojet engine and a solid-propellant booster. An internal guidance system controls missile in flight and leads out onto assumed target location. When missile reaches target location, it is guided by the signals of jamproof active radar. Target is defeated by penetration of high-explosive fragmentation warhead. Missile's body is made of aluminum alloys.

One of the main advantages of the AS-20 "Kayak" comparing with other anti-ship missiles is it's relatively small weight and dimensions. This feature significantly increased ammunition load from 4 to 16 and more missiles replacing out-dated missile systems without increase in displacement or bomb bay. This significantly expands combat capabilities of surface ships, helicopters, aircraft and other carriers. This feature also gives ability to make a massed cruise missile strike against enemy naval units.

To enhance the elements of concealment and surprise attack and improve the ability to withstand the fire opposition of the ships under attack, the Kh-35 missile possesses the lowest possible flight trajectory with an altitude in 10-15 meters over the sea. Cruise missile also has a small reflection surface. The long-range firing capability increases the survivability of carriers.

There are three subvariants of air carried Kh-35:

- The Kh-35V missile is carried by helicopters;
- The Kh-35U is carried by aircraft;
- The Itz-35 is a drone.

Missiles weight varies from 500 to 600 kilograms from the variant of the missile. Shipborne version - the "Uran" or SS-N-25 "Switchblade" weights up to 600 kilograms.

The shipborne "Uran" missile system consists from the cruise missile itself, launching container, launcher, shipboard control system, and ground equipment complex comprising missile checking facilities.

The "Uran" missile launcher is a metal structure positioned at an angle of 35º to the ship's horizontal plane. Each launcher is designed to carry four missiles in their launching-transporting containers. Ship's automated control system checks missiles for condition, prepares them for launch, and also receives, processes and inputs the target indication data into the missiles before firing. Control system is made in the form of two containers covering 15 and 5 square meters respectively. The first container houses a central control device, analog quantities input device and supply source control device, while the second container accommodates a power pack of the automated control system, comprising two devices for connection with the launchers and missiles, two junction boxes and a converter.

Ground equipment complex is intended to prepare missiles for use, handle and maintain them. The complex includes an automated missile test system, a set of equipment for preparation of missiles, their repair and maintenance, a set of load handling facilities, transporting trolleys, fuel and air servicers, transport trucks and a crane truck, etc. The ground equipment complex is set up on the coast forming an autonomous maintenance area for missiles and their launching transporting containers.
 

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#9
Kh-22 Burya
AS-4 Kitchen


Type long-range tactical standoff missile
Wingspan 3.0 m
Length 11.3-11.65 m
Diameter 0.92 m
Launch weight 5780-6000 kg
Max. speed 4000 km/h
Ceiling 24000 m
Maximum range 460-500 km
Propulsion liquid propellant rocket motor
Guidance active radar or passive infra-red homing
Warhead high-explosive, 1000 kg, or
nuclear, 350 kT yield
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Soviet/Russian Cruise Missiles

The mighty Kh-22 (AS-4 Kitchen) was the weapon which stimulated the development of the SPY-1 Aegis system. Designed during the 1960s for dual role use as a nuclear armed standoff weapon, and as an anti-shipping missile with either radar or anti-radiation seekers, the Kh-22 remains in service as the primary armament of the RuAF's residual fleet of Tu-22M3 Backfires. While the Tu-95K-22 Bear G was equipped to carry up to three Kh-22s, its progressive retirement has limited use to the Backfire.

Soviet Long Range Aviation (DA-VVS) followed a very different path to the V-MF in pursuing second generation cruise missiles. The Kangaroo proved to be troublesome and clearly would have difficulty penetrating NATO defences, the DA-VVS coveted a missile similar to the British Avro Blue Steel which was being developed for the V-bombers.

Raduga developed the Kh-22 Burya or AS-4 Kitchen to meet this need. The Kitchen was a bigger, faster and longer ranging equivalent to the Blue Steel, initially armed with a 1 Megatonne nuclear warhead and equipped with inertial guidance. The AV-MF instantly took an interest in the Kh-22 and ASCM variants with active radar and anti-radiation seekers eventually emerged.

The Kh-22 is a formidable weapon. Powered by an Isayev R-201-300 / S5.44 liquid rocket delivering 83 kN full thrust and 5.9 kN cruise thrust, it is claimed to exceed 4.6 Mach in cruise at 80,000 ft AGL. Around 3 tonnes of TG02 fuel and AK-20K oxidiser are carried providing a cited range between 145 NMI (270 km) and 300 NMI (550 km), subject to variant, profile and launch speed/altitude. The engine uses gas generator driven turbopumps and a central power generator to power the onboard avionics and hydraulics.

The structure was the first to use OT-4-1 and SM-5 titanium alloys extensively. Not unlike Lockheed with the A-11/YF-12A, Raduga experienced numerous problems with materials and the high airframe temperature during Mach 3+ cruise.

While the Kh-22 was intended to replace the Kangaroo, it was first deployed in the Tu-22 Blinder which used the PN or Down Beat acquisition radar to target the missile.

By the early 1970s the ineffective Blinder was being replaced by the more capable Tu-22M2 Backfire B, capable of carrying up to three Kh-22s, but usually armed with one on the centerline BD-45 adaptor. The final 1980s Tu-22M3 Backfire C variant had the performance to carry three Kh-22s to 2,500 nautical miles, with underwing rounds on BD-45K adaptors – this weapon system remains in Russian service today. It also armed the primary strike regiments of the AV-MF during the last decade of the Cold War.

The basic Kh-22PG anti-shipping variant of the missile used a PG active radar seeker, the improved Kh-22N the PMG seeker. The Kh-22P anti-radiation variant, with a PSN or PGP-K seeker, required the Kurs N/NM RHAW receiver. The Kh-22M introduced an improved variant of the engine.

The integration of the Kh-22 on the Tu-95K-20 Bear C proved to be protracted and troublesome, but eventually resulted in upgrades running through the 1980s to convert all Bear B/C bombers into the Tu-22K-22 Bear G equipped to carry the improved PNA Down Beat radar and up to three Kh-22s, for use as a nuclear armed defence suppression or maritime strike system.

Seven variants have been reported to date, and a mid life upgrade for the APK-22 guidance package has also been recently reported. Nuclear armed variants included a TERCOM system to supplement the inertial unit.

If China ever proceeds with the much speculated upon Backfire purchase, the Kh-22 is likely to be supplied as the basic weapon for the aircraft. The Backfire carries up to three rounds, although typical payloads are one or two, on BD-45K/F adaptors.

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Shaheen

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#10
Russian Novator 3M-54 Klub / Kalibr / SS-N-27 missile complex
1024px-3M-54E1.jpg

The 3M-54 Klub / Kalibr (SS-N-27) family of cruise missiles were designed by the Novator Design Bureau and cruise at a low altitude between 10 to 15 m. The Kalibr is the domestic version of the Klub for Russian use, while the Klub is for the export market only.

The Klub can be used to engage submarines, ships and ground targets and consists of the following components:
  • the Klub-N for surface warships
  • the Klub-S for submarines
  • the Klub-M for vehicles on land
  • the Klub-K for commercial shipping containers
An air-launched version of the Klub was also proposed, but has yet to be developed.

The Klub can be launched from 533 mm torpedo tubes, from UKSK Vertical Launch System (VLS) cells, inclined missile box launchers and commercial shipping containers.

The Klub missile complex consists of the following members:
  • the 3M-54E is a sea-skimming, active radar, subsonic anti-ship missile with a supersonic terminal stage: length of 8.2 m, weight is 2300 kg, range is 220 km, warhead of 200 kg, maximum speed of Mach 2.9
  • the 3M-54E1 is a sea-skimming, active radar, subsonic anti-ship missile: length of 6.2 m, weight is 1780 kg, range is 300 km, warhead is 400 kg, maximum speed of Mach 0.8
  • the 3M-14E is a low-flying land attack cruise missile: length of 6.2 m, weight is 1780 kg, range is 300 km, warhead is 400 kg, maximum speed of Mach 0.8
  • the 91RE1 is a submarine launched, rocket-assisted, anti-submarine torpedo similar to SUBROC: length of 8 m, weight is 2050 kg, range is 50 km, warhead is 76 kg, maximum speed is Mach 2.5
  • the 91RE2 is a surface-launched, rocket-assisted, anti-submarine torpedo similar to ASROC: length of 6.5 m, weight is 1300 kg, range is 40 km, warhead is 76 kg, maximum speed is Mach 2.0
The Klub is in service with Russia and has been exported to China, India and Algeria.
 

WebMaster

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#11
A cup of coffee is needed now. Gosh it has been a while since I read an informative thread.

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Khafee

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#13

Ejaz

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#14
Im not quite sure if anti ship missiles can be used against subs. I would be so grateful to you @Jon Snow if you can shed some light on the subject. I also would like to know how deep can an anti sub missile dive under water to hit the target. Would it pops up when it hits or at close radius?
 

Shaheen

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#15
Im not quite sure if anti ship missiles can be used against subs. I would be so grateful to you @Jon Snow if you can shed some light on the subject. I also would like to know how deep can an anti sub missile dive under water to hit the target. Would it pops up when it hits or at close radius?
AShM cannot be used against subs
Most AShM fly just a few meters of the sea surface and pop up just before attacking
go through this article i hope it will help you
https://defencyclopedia.com/2014/08/01/explained-how-cruise-missiles-work/
 
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